Tribes In India

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Tribes In India


1) ‘ But the word tribe has not been defined anywhere in the Constitution. Article 366(25) of the Constitution states that the Scheduled Tribes are such tribes or tribal communities or parts of such groups of tribes or tribal communities as the President of India may, by public notification under Article 342(1), specify.


2) Tribal population is found in almost all parts of the world. India has one of the two largest concentration of tribal population. Tribal communities form an important part of the Indian social structure.


3) Tribes are the oldest communities as they are the first to be settled. Tribals are called the original inhabitants of this land. These groups are still in a primitive state and are often referred to as primitive aborigines, tribals or girijans etc. According to the 2011 census, the tribal population in India was 6.7%. India currently has the second largest tribal population in the world after Africa.

4) In the Indian context the word ‘tribe’ is today called ‘Scheduled Tribe’. The Scheduled Tribes are the second largest group of backward classes that comes under the privileged section of the population.


5) These communities are considered to be the oldest of the present inhabitants of India. And it is believed that they have survived here for centuries with their unchanged ways of life. Many tribal groups are still in a primitive state and away from the influence of modern civilization

6) The term Scheduled Tribe has been interpreted in various ways.


7) For laymen the term suggests the tribals who live in hills and forests, for administrators it means a group of citizens who have certain privileges supported by the constitution, for an anthropologist it refers to a social phenomenon. indicates a particular area for study, Risley v.


8) Elwin and others used the term ‘Adivasi’ for the tribals. Sir Bains, a British census officer referred to the tribal community as a ‘hill tribe’. Hutton preferred to use the term ‘primitive tribe’. Mahatma Gandhi popularized the term ‘Girijan’ The Constitution of India has accepted the use of the term ‘Scheduled Tribe’, which was first introduced in 1928 by the Simon Commission. Tribes are also called ‘Vanvasi’, ‘Aranyavasi’, Vanyalati.


9)’ etc. But the word tribe has not been defined anywhere in the constitution. Article 366(25) of the Constitution states that the Scheduled Tribes are such tribes or tribal communities or parts of such groups of tribes or tribal communities as the President of India may, by public notification under Article 342(1), specify.



There are limits to defining tribes anthropologically. André Bete points out the following limitations:


  1. There is no distinct political boundary, in many instances, the boundaries of different states cut across tribal divisions.
  2. The linguistic boundary is also gradually changing.
  3. The cultural boundary of the tribe is not clear. There are many elements of continuity with regional cultures. It cannot be considered specific in rigorous ways.
  4. The homogenous form of tribal society has almost disappeared. Some elements of stratification have been observed among some tribes, and homogeneity among tribes cannot be described as an exclusive feature of the tribe.



The distinction between tribals and non-tribals is ambiguous in many ways. And there is no consensus among social scientists regarding the definition of the term tribe. Some definitions are given below:


W.J.Perry: ‘a group that speaks a common dialect and resides in a common area’.

Rivers: ‘a social group of simple type, whose members speak common

common objective like welfare

speak and act

Gillin and Gillin: ‘A tribe is a group of local communities living in a common area.

Madan: ‘A conglomerate of simple minds, occupying a concentrated territory, a common language, a common government, a common action in war.’

D.N. Majundar: ‘Tribe is a collection of families bearing a common name, the members of which live in the same area, speak the same language and observe certain taboos regarding marriage, profession or occupation and have a spirit of reciprocity and reciprocity. Well developed evaluation system. Obligation.’

sc Dubey: ‘Tribe is an ethnic category defined by real or imaginary descent and characterized by a wide range of commonly shared traits of a corporate identity and culture.’


Speaks a common dialect and follows a common culture.’



1) From the definitions it can be concluded that a tribe is nothing but a group of families having a common ancestor and descendants. They are related by blood and are closely related to each other. They have a sense of oneness and unity in general.


2) They speak a common language and have more or less the same traditions because of a common cultural heritage. They live in groups in a geographical area.


3) Tribes are generally a social group consisting of a number of clans, nomadic bands, villages or other subgroups that usually have a definite territorial area, a distinct language and a distinct culture, either a common political organization or at least Less there is a sense of general determination against it. out

4) Ars. Tribes are considered as a group of people living in a particular area, having a distinct identity in their way of life and culture.


5) Contrary to what is commonly expected, a tribe can be described as a homogeneous unit, having some common territory and common ancestors. They are isolated from the mainstream and often pre-educated and backward in technology given social and political customs based on kinship. Even though some tribes have changed in their distinctive features, some of them are still relevant.





Tribes generally reveal certain characteristics:

  1. Definite common area: A tribe is a territorial community. This means that the group has a certain

The area in which its members reside.

  1. Collection of Families: Tribals form a collection of families. these families have

Blood relations. They can be matrilineal or patriarchal.

  1. Common name: Each tribe has its own name. A tribe is known to others by its distinctive name.
  2. Common language: The tribals speak a common language within their group. this language

Different from the language of other communities including the surrounding tribes.

  1. Common Ancestor: Almost all tribes claim a common ancestor. Their sense of we-feeling develops from a blood relationship through a common ancestor. They are bound by the limits of kinship.
  2. Common religion: Tribals generally worship a single ancestor and follow a single religion. Tribal social and political organizations are based on religion, with participation in religious rituals creating group unity.
  3. Common Culture: Tribes have their own way of life. They practice a common culture which includes similar customs, traditions, ethics and rituals. The special characteristics of a tribe lead to the development of a distinct culture.
  4. General political organization: The head of the community exercises authority. The chiefship is hereditary. They have a tribal council or judicial system.
  5. We feel: The members of a tribe feel that they are united. Emotion is essential to maintain and maintain your identity.
  6. Endogamy: Tribes generally practice endogamy, marrying within their own group, so that

Maintain the purity of blood.

  1. General economic organization: Most of the tribals are agricultural laborers. 57% of them are economically active. Usually their economic condition is very bad.
  2. Simplicity and self-reliance – A tribe is simple in its character and operations. They do not have the rights or enjoy the facilities of the modern society.

These are some of the general characteristics of a tribe. Some may have a very different character. But most of the tribes are sharing these common features.






Clan And Tribe


1) Clan is a type of group which forms a part of the kinship system. It has special importance in tribal society. Clan refers to a unilateral kinship group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent.


2) It is a collection of uniparental families whose members consider themselves to be the common descendants of a real or mythical ancestor. Clan membership is a socially defined term of actual or pure descent from a common ancestor.


3) This descent is unilineal and is derived only from the male of the female. This includes all the relatives of the father’s side or the mother’s side.

4) Each tribe consists of smaller kinship units. Some tribes are related to wild animals, trees and plants. Some gotra names are related to Bhuta, the gotra being an exogamous unit. Its members do not marry among themselves. A tribe is largely endogamous.


5) The tribe has no fixed language. a tribe in general

She speaks a normal dialect. The clan does not have any fixed geographical area. A tribe occupies a common territory.



Geographical distribution of tribes

Tribes in India are concentrated in a definite geographical area. About two-thirds of India’s total tribal population is found in the fire states of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Bihar and Maharashtra. Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh have the highest number of tribals in MP, tribals form 70% to 95% of the total population.

tribal area

Tribes in India are not found alone in any one particular area, but are distributed in different states. B.S. Guha has given a three fold regional distribution of tribals.

1) North and North-Eastern region.

2) The central or central region.



3) Southern Region

CB Mamoriya is included as the fourth territory in this list, which includes the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The north and north-eastern region includes the sub-Himalayan region and the hills and mountain ranges of the north-eastern borders of India. The aborigines of the region are mostly Magnolia rare and speak languages belonging to the Tibeto-Chinese family. This region is inhabited by tribes like Gerung, Limbo, Khasi, Garo, Naga, Mikir etc. It is estimated that about 13% of the tribes in India are found in this region.

The tribes of the central region are scattered all over the mountain-

The belt between the rivers Narmada and Godavari. It includes parts of West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Gujarat, MP, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and UP. The main tribes of this region are Gond, Munda, Baiga, Bhil, Santhal, Juong etc. 80 percent of the tribal population resides in this area.



The southern region comes under the Krishna river. It includes AP, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and two Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. The tribes of this region are considered to be the oldest inhabitants in India. Tribes like Kota, Kurumba, Kadar, Paniyan etc. are included in this region.


This region accounts for about 6-5% of the total tribal population. The main tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are Jarawas, Nicobarese and Andamanese.

Based on cultural factors and cultural contacts, Ghurye classifies the Indian tribes into three categories. First, the groups were recognized as members of fairly high status within Hindu society; second, the vast majority of the population which have been partially Hinduised and come into close contact with the Hindus; and third the hill tribes, who have demonstrated the power of resistance to foreign cultures pressing on their frontiers.

other characteristics

The tribal population in India speaks many languages and dialects. These languages can be broadly classified into three categories:

1) Dravidians (South Indian tribes).

2) Austrics (Central Indian tribes)

3) Tibeto-Chinese (Himalayan region)

Economic characteristics are considered for the following classifications:

1) Food gatherers and hunters

2) Shepherds and cattle feeding

3) shifting cultivators

4) settled farmers

5) laborers and workers

Cultural features help to divide tribes into four groups:

1) Those who live in post primitive stage

2) who lead a community life and share a common culture

3) Those who are isolated from the mainstream communities.

Tribes in the second and third groups have more or less contact with outsiders. They tried to maintain their social and cultural identity.

Ethnic classification of tribes in India is done as follows:

1) Mangaloid (Naga, Chakma, Botia etc.)

2) Proto-Australoids (Gonds, Mundas, Orans, Khonds etc.)

3) Negroids (Jarawa, Kadar, Andamanese, Nicobarese etc.)

4) Nordic (Slightly)



Tribals in other societies

Tribals generally stay away from civilized life. Usually they live in remote areas like forests, mountains, dense valleys etc. Today most of them have come in contact with advanced communities. They have borrowed many cultural traits from outsiders.

The tribes came in contact with the advanced people in various ways. DN Majumdar suggests the following methods of contact:

1) Industrialization in the neighboring region forced them to migrate and mix with outsiders.

2) Vendors and traders offered many products to outsiders. This contact gradually changed.

3) The administrative authorities made significant changes including new facilities.

4) Christian missionaries also spread the religion influenced by measures of education and health.

5) The tremendous development of transport and communication has made an impact in many ways.

6) Tribes displaced due to war, or developmental programs have come in contact with others and been affected.

Contact with other communities has brought about a series of changes. Most of the tribes have come under the influence of the caste system. The conversion and Hinduisation brought some social mobility to their social structure, but it never helped in their overall upliftment. Tribal food, ceremonies, festivals and dances have been replaced by cultural practices introduced by outsiders. The education system that has been introduced in the tribal area is mostly unsuited to the tribal way of life. Tribal customs and practices are often interspersed with complex systems of law and legal process. outsiders

The occurrence of disease through contact, including venereal diseases and alcoholism, has affected the safety of tribal life. Available medical assistance is very insignificant with the situation.

Thus the tribals’ contact with civilization has made them somewhat positive.

Change. It has also given rise to new problems and challenges.

tribal problems

The tribes in India are affected by many factors and are facing many problems. Many of these problems arise for the following reasons:

1) Exploitation by outsiders

2) Contact and influence from outsiders

3) British and Indian policies of administration

4) Missionary intervention

5) Due to unscientific programs implemented




Indian tribe


  – According to the 2001 census, the tribal or tribal population in India is 8 crore 43 lakhs, which is 8 of the total population of the country. is 3%. These about 424 tribes, mainly in three regions Central India, Ajri-East India and South India, have got a lot of variation in personality, vision, thinking and group style. For example, the five largest tribes of India such as Bhil. The population of Gand Rtha Mana is above five million while the population of the smallest tribe, Und Maniya, is just over a thousand. Big tribes are increasing at the rate of normal growth but Ho, Kamar, hills etc. are decreasing. Just complete The tribal community itself is in trouble. This crisis is basically a crisis of infection. The reason for transition and change is the question of integrating tribes into the Indian society and culture. The basic problem of tribes in the Indian context is the problem of integration. The definition of tribe in India is difficult because due to change and adjustment many tribes have been entering the caste system. It becomes difficult to separate these tribes from the castes. Despite this difficulty, D. N. Mazumdar has given a definition of tribe. According to them, a tribe is a social group that is attached to a particular area, that marries within its own group, that does not have division of labor other than sex, division of labor, division of labor between men and women, Administered by hereditary or other types of tribal chieftains, each group has a distinct dialect, maintains a distance from other tribes and castes, adheres to tribal customs and practices, is susceptible to outside ideas . For example Santhal, Gond, Dodhiya, Chenchu, Naga etc. are group tribes.































Tribal Problems


As we said earlier, the problem of tribes is the problem of their integration from the point of view of the Indian nation. Tribals face difficulty in integration due to their tribal identity, tribal sensibility and separate independent spirit. So integration is exacerbated by other problems: These other problems have arisen due to the effect of British rule in the tribe, contact of tribes with other Indians, government policies etc. like


  The problem of land loss – Tribals or tribes are seriously attached to their land. A land is more intimately related to them than land property. The tribes which are nomadic or live in chunghat like- Chench, Sijo, Bipura etc. also roam in a limited area and the area in which they roam. There is a special relationship between the trees, animals and land resources of that area. The tribals did not have the problem of land grab before, but in spite of this they did not like others to live in their area, buy land from others, etc. According to the statistics of 2001, most of the tribes do agriculture. In the last two hundred years, the land of the tribals is being snatched from them. In Gujarat, when Gujarat Vidyapith studied two areas of Banaskot district in this context, it was found that 50% of the land was snatched from the hands of tribals. Similar studies were also done in Madhya Pradesh and Manipur and their conclusions were similar. B. A . Rath has said that the problem of land-grabbing is not so serious in India. Reasons for land loss – Tribals’ land was snatched away from them due to many reasons, mediums and methods.


(1) The most important reason for land loss has been the greed of non-tribal agricultural groups towards land. In tribal areas, by persuading the tribals, they get their land registered in their name.

(2) Moneylenders and traders also snatch the land of tribals by giving them loans by keeping them on mortgage and taking land in exchange for goods. After the control of the tribal areas by the British, this work happened very fast. Often the tribals were against these merchant moneylenders more than the British, who were very autocratic in the matter of grabbing. In the 19th century in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay etc. tribal revolts took place due to this.

  (3) The indifference and dynastic attitude of the government officials has also deprived the tribals of the land. When the tribals complain against the usurpation of their land, no action is taken and they themselves grab the land.

(4) Due to development programmes, construction of dams, construction of tomorrow-factories, tribals have to leave their land. It falls D . Of . Ramvarman said that tribals have always been victims of development programmes. Ale . P . According to the student, due to the establishment of heavy industry in Ranchi, the tribals had to bear the pain of displacement. satyadev the

According to the province, the development programs in North-East India have also harmed them.

  (5) The new rich farmers and businessmen have driven out the tribal farmers from their land. Muslim traders have encroached upon Tharu farmers in the state, and tribal lands have been encroached upon by Andhra ethnic farmers in Champaran, Bihar. According to Kumar Suresh Singh, land grabbing is the most serious problem of the tribals. In most of the cases, it is for this reason that dissatisfaction has developed among the tribals. The reforms made by the government in the land and revenue law due to this have also not benefited.


  Indebtedness: Another problem faced by tribals related to land acquisition is indebtedness. In general, the problem of indebtedness has increased due to integration with the modern economy. Tribals take loan mainly for drinking Harab and due to the mistake of moneylenders. The problem of indebtedness also increases due to illiteracy and ignorance of the tribals. Moneylenders mostly write off the excess amount as debt. Liquor contractors and their brokers also tempt them by giving them liquor at low prices.


Deforestation – Tribal communities consider their traditional rights over forests. His relationship with the forest has been very close. Since independence, due to government acquisition of forests, handing over of forests to contractors and due to adoption of trade of forest produce like mango, safflower, karanj, tendupatta etc. by the government, the economic condition of the tribes has become very pathetic.


Addiction to drinking – Alcoholic drinks are an essential part of the life of the tribals. Before the arrival of the British, they themselves used to make and drink it. Handiya in Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Pong in Assam, J in Nagaland, Mizoram, Ladki in Andhra in Himachal Pradesh are such intoxicating drinks. During the British era, liquor contractors were allowed to enter here, which attracted the tribals. Anyway, there are three times more country liquor shops in the tribal areas than in the rest of the areas. Sociologists have studied this problem in detail. After studying Bastar district, Grogayan said that their economy has collapsed due to this. Nirmal Kumar Bose has called liquor contractors as agents of exploitation. K . Ale . According to Sharma, the addiction to drinking is increased by the contractors, they give liquor in Dhar, arrange to sell liquor in fairs. That’s why Jhar Fatah. That’s why the leaders of the Jharkhand movement had made this problem of selling Hadiya instead of country liquor a part of the movement. Many places were made a mystery. KGB has been closed at many places, yet it has not ended.


Unstable farming practice – many tribes Khata Khata practice – many tribes Unstable system of farming i.e. going to a place and clearing the bushes there, burning them and scattering the ashes, burning them and scattering the ashes and then sprinkling the hawks after minor digging Let’s move the mountain of giving. For example Chench, Bijo Koi etc. Sir – In East India it is called Pidu. The Government of India had banned this backward technique of farming by making a law in 1954.


  On the request of Warrior Albin, it was not allowed to live in certain areas, but it was allowed to live in certain areas. It is true that the yield in it would have been less. But changing it immediately has proved fatal. Let the truth be changed, it has proved fatal. Isri and M. Tea . Chaturvedi J. P . Silch etc. said. That unsustainable farming is not the problem. Rather, it is not a complement to the tribals, rather it is an uncle of the tribals. It needs to be improved. The tribes like Bharia, Laiga etc. have clearly stated that the general public has clearly stated that they do not have the power to buy the equipments required for normal farming. they can only do unstable agriculture


The problem of education among tribals- Tribals, to a large extent, this problem is cultural. Tribals oppose modern education because tribals can forget their culture and tribal community by it. Because dominance can end. In the north-east of India, the Christian Missionaries propagated English education. The problem of education among tribals is related to their economic condition. L: RN. Shrivastava himself. After study said that due to economic poverty tribals do not pass on to their children. B. D . Shami said that the present education system has been made keeping in mind the urban middle class. It is not tribal friendly. Y. Sen also did not find it favorable to the tribals. s . N. According to Hathe, tribal education. Sufficient resources have not been mobilized for this. Among them, the percentage of literacy is very low and among the dropouts, tribals are second only to women.


Health problem – It is a common belief that the health of tribals is very bad. Many of these people have been suffering from fatal diseases for a long time. They don’t have the right attitude towards health and they don’t get many facilities even if they want to. Their life expectancy is about 20 years less than that of other Indians. You . N. Dhebar said that despite government arrangements, problems have increased due to lack of proper measures, lack of trained people, lack of communication and non-supply of medicines.


Lack of communication – Tribal areas are remote and inaccessible areas. Because of this, convenience, knowledge and prosperity do not reach them whenever the British or the Indian rulers

When there was a need to extract minerals, wood or other products from these areas, means of transport were developed. On the contrary, due to the development of means of transport in tribal areas, their exploitation has increased further. N. N. According to Rath, the facilities of transport have further increased the exploitation of tribals. In his opinion, the entry of other people into the tribal areas has to be controlled. V . D . According to Sharma, it would be wrong to reduce the facilities of traffic due to the fear of exploitation. Transport facilities pave the way for development.


Tribal specific group – As a result of development, social inequality and weaponization have developed among tribals. Along with this a small but distinct group has developed among them. It is equipped with educational facilities and other facilities. This leadership is more engaged in its resources than the development of ordinary tribals. a . According to Satchidananda, this leadership ignores government facilities and assistance. A . R . According to Kamath, due to this special group, the problems of tribals increase. The problem of tribals is basically that of integration in the Indian society. This problem became more serious than other problems. The problems have created chaos in the tribes due to which the tribals are born defeated. Most of these movements have been done or are being done by the expectedly developed tribes. Till now the tribal community of India is a backward and dissatisfied community. ,


  Special features of Indian tribes – Tribal population is spread all over the world but the tribals of India are different from other tribals of the world in many respects. V . Of . Rai Varman’s statement is also correct that even the tribals of India are not similar to each other but have serious economic differences. Despite this, Indian sociologists and anthropologists like T.M. Arupayan etc. have discussed special symptoms in relation to them.


  (1) The economic characteristics of the tribals in India are different in the sense that most of the people in the 2001 census He called himself a farmer. But it is a fact that although none of these do the same thing, but most of the people either hunt, collect tubers, like Birhor. Some people do animal husbandry, in which toys are the most prominent. Some people survive on crafts like badga, apatani etc. Some people live in only one place, but they get farming done everywhere. Like – Kamar, Baiga etc. Many large tribes have now taken to settled agriculture and as a result Santhals, Mundas, Bhils, Tharu have emerged as some of the advanced farmers. According to Majumdar, no tribe in India is engaged in fishing and none of these tribes of Andaman do any single economic activity. Before the arrival of the British, currency was not prevalent in them and they used to do division of labor between men and women.

(2) From the point of view of political organization, although now all tribes are under Indian administration, but still many tribes run their own administration and they are administered by chieftains or chiefs or heroes. Some tribes of Andaman are still not ready to join the Indian administration. According to Andre Bete, before the unification of India, each tribe was a political system in itself and each tribe had its own political boundaries. ,

(3) From the point of view of social organization, total kinship youth organization etc. is very important in Indian tribes. As a result of this, although youth organizations have become very weak, but still they are present here and there, which are the most strange from the point of view of social structure and are also very important.

(4) In the field of non-material culture, they follow the practices and primary rules. Public opinion is very important here. There is neither a separate organization nor a separate form for following the religion they believe in. In the tribal society, magic is not only respected but it can be performed very regularly. They use magic for almost all their works.

(5) From the point of view of Bhapa, there was no script in the Indian tribes earlier. In the last few decades the Santhals Aulchiki script has been developed and Gond people have developed Gondi script. But the dialects of all the tribes are different from each other, on the basis of their character they are divided into four divisions. One is called Indo-Tibetan which is spoken by tribes like Bhautia, Riyam etc. Second is Indo-Chinese which is spoken by Mikir, Bodo, Kiang Long etc. The third is Indo-Siamese which is spoken by the Apatani and the Karam people of India. Fourth is the Austric dialect group which is spoken by most of the tribes of India like Santhal, Ho, Bhil, Bali etc. The tribes of South India basically speak the dialects of the Dravidian group. Like – Kakamba, Todd, Badaga Malapathnam etc. From the racial point of view, although there is some controversy among anthropologists, but B. s . After studying the cavity, some clarity has come in this. According to him, there are people of the Negro race in India and others have proved that most of the tribes of the Andaman Islands are of the same race as well as some other tribes of South India also have a similar practice. The second ethnic group is that of Proto-Stalvaites which are the tribes of Central India, such as Santhal, Munda etc. mongolian race

Left in two parts. One is called Palaeomagolchayte, which is the species of the tribes of strata eastern India and the other is called Tivetomongolchayd, which is called Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Palaiyad, which is the species of most of the tribes of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim. These characteristics have been given only in the form of broad criteria and it is certain that if we go into detail, we will find more differences than that. Like other groups and communities, tribal communities are also subject to changes. Due to their poor condition and backwardness, though the changes in them have Indian character, but in them too, the traditional Har Sevan is becoming more and more and the modern changes are decreasing. The population of North-East India is most developed in Undh Manala. The tribes of South India and Andaman Deep group are still the most backward from Gaikvasht.


   What steps have been taken by the state and central government for tribal welfare?


About 8 of the total population in India. 2% and 0 of the entire population in Bihar. 91% Tribal In 4001 there were approximately 84, 326, 000 Indian tribals. These tribes are facing different types of problems. Due to urbanization and industrialization, expansion of Hinduism and Christianity and contact with geographical environment and outside culture, these tribes are passing through the transition phase and they are facing various socio-political problems. Government, masses, social reformers and anthropologists are all aware of them and are trying to solve these problems by identifying them.

Majumdar and Madan say that the problems of tribes can be kept in two categories. Firstly, there are those problems which are related only to the tribals. ,

  According to Dhuriye, we can keep the problems of the tribe in three categories.

  1. Problems of tribes which have got place in Hindu society like, Rajgond etc.

2 . The problem of wool castes on whom the mental influence of Hindus is increasing.

  1. Such tribes which are different from these influences and oppose the change. For the social welfare of the tribals, the government and administration have started various welfare programs at the central and state level. Before independence, there was a policy of Isolation or Separation in the British rule. Therefore, special attention was not given to the welfare of the tribals, rather efforts were made to establish political dominance over them. Against which the tribals also revolted but they were crushed mercilessly. After independence, a secular welfare state was established and the Indian government started special schemes for the welfare of tribes and other weaker sections. There are many types of provisions for the welfare and place of tribes in the constitution.

  First of all, a schedule of tribes has been prepared all over India. In which about 212 tribes are included and for the protection of their interests and general welfare they have been provided with many rights and facilities.

  Article 342 of the Constitution provides for the organization of an Advisory Council, which prepares various schemes for tribal welfare, and for this, there is a provision for the appointment of a special officer, the Commissioner for Scheduled Tribes, and other assistant officers.

  According to Article 16 (a) and Article 35 of the Constitution, there is a system of reservation for tribals in public and government jobs. According to the schedule of Article 244 (2), there is a provision for the establishment of Autonomous Distinct and Autonomous Areas for the administrator in the tribal areas, which will have District Committees and Central Committees.

Apart from this, according to section 46 of the fourth part of the constitution, special facilities have been provided for the advancement of education and improvement in the economic life of the Scheduled Tribes.

In the sixth part of the constitution, keeping in mind the problems of tribals, it was ordered to create Tribal Welfare Ministry in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, which will look after tribal welfare at the state level. After the division of Jharkhand, there has been talk of abolishing the Ministry of tribal welfare from Bihar.

  According to Indian Constitution Article 23, it is illegal to force a person to work and Article 27 provides for the protection of minority culture. These streams can also be considered very important from the point of view of tribal welfare and this can also bring changes in its political, social, economic etc. conditions.

  In addition to the facilities not included in the constitution itself, several schemes have been implemented by the government for the all-round development of the Scheduled Tribes in India. In order to bring political awareness among the tribals and to make them a participant in the national mainstream, some seats in the Lok Sabha and Vidhansabha are reserved for the tribals only.

About 30 seats for the Lok Sabha and 265 seats for the Legislative Assemblies are reserved for the Scheduled Tribes. At the local level too, seats have been reserved for them in Regional Councils, Local Boards and Gramin Panchayats.

  Efforts have been made to allocate specific funds for tribal welfare in various five year plans. Various committees and commissions have been established during these plans. In which various aspects of the problems of the tribals have been clearly sung and definite and correct steps can be taken to solve them. Land transfer, bonded labor, loans in the fifth five-year plans

Access, supply of essential commodities and sale of land and forest produce were accepted as central problems to the tribals.

Tribal blocks were also opened in various tribal areas of undivided Bihar under the Community Development Scheme. Under this, many tribes of Choyanagpur were benefitted.

Along with this, various organizations were established in tribal areas with the help of Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Community Development. Which had to implement welfare schemes related to many types of problems like agriculture, irrigation, indebtedness, house construction etc.

  In the field of education too, many schemes have been implemented by the government, including opening of new schools for tribals, making education free, naming them in various schools and colleges and arranging hostels, etc. Important works have also been done by other organizations in this field.

The problems of tribals are mainly of economic nature. Efforts have been made by the government in this field. Firstly, there is a system of reservation for them in various jobs. Keeping in mind the land related problems among the tribals, the government has implemented many such legislations, which are solving their problems. A lot of relief has been provided to the tribals of Chhotanagpur by banning the sale of land in tribal areas. This Act is called Tenancy Act.

  Another major problem of tribals is related to indebtedness. For this, the government has given special attention in the five year plans. Land, seeds and other types of facilities have been provided to the landless farmers in different five year plan periods. Along with this, arrangements have also been made to survey these things so that these schemes can be fully implemented. The major problem of some tribes is related to shifting agriculture. Several measures have been taken in the Five Year Plans for their rehabilitation and sustainable agriculture. For example, Pilot farms and Agricultural demonstration units have been opened in Andhra Pradesh.

Special emphasis was laid on land reforms and introduction of cash crops in Assam, distribution of funds for agricultural implements and seeds etc. and rehabilitation schemes, land control schemes and development of settlements in Orissa and Tripura. With this in view, suitable arrangements for improvement of barren land and irrigation have been provided in various areas. Arrangements have also been made for the development and training centers of cottage industries.

Different types of co-operative societies in tribal areas like – Mazdoor Samiti, marketing. consumer ‘, co-oprative, labor co-oprative etc. have been established. In this way, the schemes of the Indian government are being brought among the Indian tribes through proper channels.

Keeping in mind the home problems and health problems of the tribals, the Indian government has cheated the schemes. Housing schemes have been implemented for the development of tribals. For Paharia, Kalra, Birhor etc., government housing was provided to them under the Gah Awas Yojana by the government. Along with this, some financial assistance has also been provided to them to build a house. In the field of health too, the government has launched several schemes for the welfare of the tribals, including free medical treatment, vaccination, vaccination and appointment of doctors in tribal areas. Due to the efforts of the government, the Toy tribe has been saved from destruction. In short, the Government of India has implemented various schemes for the welfare of tribals. ,


  Prof. A. R. Desai has presented the main efforts in the following form. ,

  1 Establishment of Multi Purpose Blocks for Tribal Development.

2 . Development and training of cottage and rural industries, opening of production centers for their employment. and providing grants. ,

  1. Construction of settlements for tribals especially for nomadic and shifty cultivators. Implementation of rehabilitation plan. ,
  2. Providing educational facilities and scholarships etc.
  3. Reservation in jobs etc.
  4. Restriction on taking arbitrary interest on moneylenders for the diagnosis of indebtedness.
  5. Establishment of Tribal culture institution to influence cultural life.
  6. Implementation of various types of health related schemes.
  7. Tribal welfare institute and formation of different types of committees etc. to implement and evaluate these schemes. , In this way, at present, the Indian government has made every possible effort for the welfare of the tribes. going . Because of which their social and economic life is improving and the tribes are also accepting those changes and plans. One of the effects of these schemes is that the social distance between the tribal and non-tribal population is reducing and they are in the National Mallyadhara. is joining. This process of equalization will prove beneficial for both the tribes and the nation. It is expected so.


Problems of scheduled castes and tribes, constitutional arrangements and welfare schemes




Generally Scheduled Castes are also called untouchable castes. Untouchability is that system of society, due to which one society cannot touch another society on the basis of tradition, if it touches itself, it

He becomes impure and to get rid of this impurity he has to do some kind of atonement. Therefore, they have been defined on the basis of untouchability. Generally, the meaning of Scheduled Castes is applied to those castes which have been mentioned in the Schedule of the Constitution for providing religious, social, economic and political facilities. They are also called by the names of untouchable castes, Dalits, outer castes and Harijans, etc. The Scheduled Castes have been defined on the basis of castes that earn their livelihood by abominable professions, but this is not a universally accepted basis for determining untouchability. Untouchability is mainly related to the concept of purity and impurity. In the Hindu society, some professions or works have been considered holy and some unholy. Here the substances coming out of human or animal-bird body are considered unholy. In such a situation, the castes engaged in business related to these substances were considered impure and were called untouchables. Untouchability is such a system of society, under which people of castes considered untouchable cannot touch upper caste Hindus. Untouchability means ‘that which is not to be touched’. Untouchability is a belief according to which a person becomes impure just by touching, seeing or casting a shadow on another person. In order to save the upper caste Hindus from being impure, separate arrangements were made for the residence of untouchables, many disabilities were imposed on them and many measures were taken to avoid contact with them. Untouchables come under those caste groups whose touch makes others impure and who have to perform some special rites to become pure again. In this regard


  Doctor . Of . N. Sharma has written, “Untouchable castes are those whose touch makes a person impure and he has to perform some act to become pure. R. N. Saxena has written about this that if such people are considered untouchable Hindus have to purify themselves by touching, then according to an example of Hutton, Brahmins will also have to be considered untouchables because in South India, the people of Holiya caste do not allow Brahmins to pass through their village and if they are recognized, they Purifies the village.


Keeping in mind the above difficulties, Hutton has mentioned some such disabilities on the basis of which efforts have been made to determine the untouchable castes. You have considered untouchables those people who are (a) unfit to receive the service of Brahmins of high status, (b) unfit to receive the service of barbers, kahars and tailors who serve caste Hindus, (c) in Hindu temples be ineligible to obtain admission, (d) be ineligible to use public facilities (schools, roads and wells), and (e) be ineligible to disassociate from the mathematical profession. There is no uniformity in the treatment of untouchables throughout the country, nor is there uniformity in the social status of untouchables in different parts of the country. Therefore, the above grounds given by Hutton are also not final.



  Doctor . D . N. According to Majumdar, “Untouchable castes are those who suffer from various social and political disabilities, many of which are traditionally prescribed and socially enforced by the upper castes. It is clear that there are many disabilities or problems associated with untouchability which have been mentioned hereinafter.


Ramgopal Singh says that “the attitude of untouchability is not related to caste, but to traditional hatred and backwardness.” That is why D. N. In the words of Majumdar, “Untouchable castes are those who suffer from various social and political disabilities, most of which are prescribed by tradition and enforced by the socially higher castes.


  “According to Kailash Nath Sharma, “Untouchable castes are those whose touch makes a person impure and he has to perform some act to become pure.” It is clear that untouchability is related to the general disabilities of the people of the lower castes of the society, due to which these The castes are considered impure and have to make atonement when they are touched by the upper and touchable castes. Although, after the attainment of independence, accepting untouchability as a social crime, the feeling of untouchability has been banned and in this regard the ‘Untouchability-Prevention Act-1955’ has been implemented.










   Religious Disabilities – Restrictions on temple entry and use of holy places Untouchables were considered unholy and many disabilities were imposed on them. These people were denied the right to enter temples, use holy river ghats, visit holy places and worship deities at their own homes. They were not allowed to study and listen to Vedas or other religious texts. They were also not allowed to burn the dead bodies of their relatives at the public crematorium.

   Deprived of religious pleasures – Untouchables were deprived of all kinds of religious facilities. Even the caste Hindus were ordered to practice their religious

Keep the untouchables separate from life. It has been told in Manusmriti that no opinion of any kind should be given to the untouchable, nor should he be given the remaining part of the food, nor should he get the prasad of Devbhog, nor should the sacred law be explained to him, nor should he But the burden of atonement should be put on penance. , , , He, who interprets sacred law to anyone (untouchable) or compels him to do penance or atonement, will himself be drowned with him (untouchable) in the hell called Asamvrut. Untouchables have not been given the right to worship, worship, Bhagwat Bhajan, Kirtan, etc. Brahmins have not been allowed to conduct worship, Shraddha and Yagya, etc. at their place.


  Restrictions on the performance of religious rites – The untouchables have been considered impure since birth and for this reason there is no provision for rites for their purification. Sixteen major rites in religious texts for purification

mention is found. Untouchables have not been given the right to fulfill most of these. They have not been allowed to perform major rites like Vidyarambh, Upanayan and Chudakaran.


  Social Disabilities Untouchables have had many social disabilities, the main ones are as follows:


  Prohibition on social contact Untouchables were not allowed to have social contact with upper caste Hindus and to participate in their conferences, seminars, panchayats, festivals and ceremonies. They have been debarred from eating and drinking with the upper caste Hindus. Even the shadow of untouchables was considered impure and they were not allowed to use public places. The Untouchables had to do all their work in the night due to the fear that the upper caste Hindus would get impure just by their sight. In many places in South India, they were not even given the right to walk on the streets. It has been told in Manusmriti that Chandalas or Untouchables should marry and associate only with their equals and they should not be given the right to roam in the village or town at night.


  Restrictions on the use of public goods – Untouchables were not allowed to draw water from wells used by other Hindus, study in schools and stay in hostels. These people were not allowed to use the things used by the upper castes. They could not use brass and bronze utensils, could not wear nice clothes and gold ornaments. Shopkeepers don’t give them food, washermen don’t wash their clothes, barbers don’t cut their hair and kahar doesn’t fill water. They were not even allowed to live in the colony or locality of other upper caste Hindus. It has been told in religious texts that the residence of Chandalas and Shvapakas will be outside the village, they will be ineligible and only dogs and mules will be their wealth. In this regard, it has been said in Manusmriti that the clothes of a dead person or old rags should be their clothes, broken pieces of clay should be their utensils, these people should keep roaming around day and night. Not only the untouchables, but even the Shudras, who were deprived of public facilities, were not allowed to get education, constitutional arrangements and welfare schemes 425 – 17. They were not given the right to entertain themselves by attending chaupals, fairs and haats. The result was that a large section of the society remained illiterate.


   Hierarchy even within the untouchables – One surprising thing is that the system of stratification i.e. discrimination between high and low is found even among the untouchables themselves. These people are divided into more than three hundred high and low caste groups, each of which has a higher or lower status than the other. In this regard K. M . Panikkar says that “the strange thing is that within the untouchables themselves there was a separate caste-like organization. . . . Like the Savarna Hindus, they also had a stratification of sub-castes of very high and low status, one superior to the other.” claimed to be.


  Untouchables as a separate society Untouchables as a separate society have had to suffer from many disabilities. About this Dr. Panikkar writes, “When the caste-system was functional in its youth, the condition of these untouchables (fifth varna) was worse than slavery in many respects. There was a personal relationship with the master, but the family of untouchables was burdened with the servitude of the whole village. Instead of keeping individuals as slaves, some untouchable families were associated with each village in a form of collective slavery.’ No person belonging to the ‘higher’ castes could have personal relations with any untouchable.”


  Economic Disabilities Untouchables were assigned all those works which were not done by the upper caste Hindus. Due to economic disabilities, the economic condition of the untouchables became so pathetic that they were forced to fulfill their needs only by consuming fake food, torn-old clothes and discarded items of the upper castes. His economic disabilities are as follows:


  Occupational Disability – The Untouchables were assigned the work of scavenging, cleaning, lifting dead animals and making articles from their skin. To cultivate them And

The right to run a business or get a job after getting education was not given. These people mostly work as “landless” laborers in the villages. These disabilities

  It was imposed that they cannot adopt any other profession except their traditional profession.


  Property related disability – Apart from occupational disability, he also had to suffer from property related disability. They were not allowed to collect land rights and wealth. The Manusmriti states, “An untouchable should never accumulate wealth, even if he is able to do so, because a Shudra who accumulates wealth hurts the Brahmins. Elsewhere it has also been told that a Brahmin can confiscate the property of his Shudra servant at will because he has no right to keep the property. The untouchables had to serve their masters as slaves, no matter how little they were given in return. Acharya Vinoba Bhave started the ‘Bhoodan’ movement for the untouchables, moved by their property-related disqualification.


There is no facility to eat enough food (economic exploitation) Untouchables have been exploited economically. They were forced to take up the most heinous occupations and in return were not given enough food to eat. In return for their important services, the society gave them leftover junk food, discarded items and torn clothes. The Hindus justified all their behavior in the name of religion and forced the untouchables to be satisfied with this system. He was told that if he did not perform his duties properly in this life, the next life would be of even lower quality. Thus the untouchables had to be subjected to economic exploitation.


   Political Disabilities Untouchables have been deprived of all kinds of rights in the field of politics. They were not given any right to interfere in the work of governance, to give any suggestions, to get jobs for public services or to get political protection. Untouchables could be humiliated and even beaten by anyone. They were not protected against such practices. for them . There was a system of harsh punishment even for ordinary crimes. There is a clear mention of the discriminatory policy of punishment in Manusmriti. _ _ _ _ It has been said in this book that where Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas were made to take oath in the name of Satya, Shastra and Gau respectively, before giving justice to untouchables. Only as an oath, arrangements were made to walk seven steps with eight fingers long and wide hot iron in hand. The harshness of the standard can be seen from the fact that Manu has told that the part of a person of lower caste (Shudra or untouchable) with which he hurts the people of higher caste, that part will be amputated. , , , , , , , , Whoever raises his hand or stick, his hand will be cut off. It is clear that the Untouchables have had many political disabilities. The above mentioned disabilities of untouchables are specially related to the medieval social system.


  At present the problem of untouchables is mainly social and economic and not religious and political. Deprived of all kinds of rights for such a long time, being illiterate and lacking consciousness, it will take some time to improve their condition. People’s attitude towards them will gradually change and in course of time they will be able to flow in the main stream of social life. The disabilities of the untouchables are disappearing in the cities, but today they are visible in the villages. The main reason for this is that the pace of social change in rural areas is slow, conservatism still prevails there.




problems of scheduled tribes


  Unapproachable Habitation – A Problem Almost all tribes live in hilly areas, forests, swamps and places where there is a lack of roads and the current means of transport and communication are not yet available there. . As a result, it has become a difficult task to contact them. This is the reason why they are still unfamiliar with the sweet fruits of scientific inventions and their economic, educational, health and political problems have not been resolved. They are also unfamiliar with other cultures. As a result, they have developed their own specific way of life which lacks comprehensiveness. The problem of communication has arisen due to the remote residence. The facilities of road, post office, telegraph, telephone, newspaper, radio and cinema have not reached these areas, hence their Modernization has not happened and there has been an obstacle in getting tied in the thread of unity with the country.


  Problem of Cultural Contact Due to geographically inaccessible place of residence of the tribals, they could not get in touch with the modern culture and they are very backward in the race of present progress. On the other hand, some tribal cultures had contact with outside cultures. This excessive contact has also created many problems. Many reasons are responsible for giving rise to the problems of cultural contact among the tribals. new culture

The contact of aunts made the innocent tribals their own. attracted . But the difference between primitive and new cultures is that they could not adapt to the new. Outside selfish groups like traders, contractors and usurers have settled among these people and given birth to new family tensions, economic problems and physical diseases among them. The new administration brought them in contact with police officers, administration and forest officials, etc., who have looked at the tribals with an inferiority complex instead of showing them sympathy. At present, many new industries, mines and tea gardens have started functioning at the places where tribal people used to reside. As a result, he came in contact with the new industrial and urban culture, but he was unable to adapt to this newness. As a result new cultural problems were born. The Christian missionaries did their work of propagating religion in the name of service and took advantage of the ignorance and illiteracy of the tribals. Due to the influence of Christian missionaries, many tribals abandoned their culture and adopted western culture. They started using English dress, drugs, new means of cosmetics like powder, lipstick, perfume, oil, etc. and abandoned their customs, practices, youth-houses and their ancient fine arts began to decline. Tribal law and justice have been replaced by new law and justice which do not match with their traditional values. Hindus are among the foreign cultural groups who came in contact with the tribals. Due to contact with Hindus, the practice of child marriage flourished among these people and the problem of language was born. In this way many problems arose due to contact of tribals with external cultural groups such as land system problem, forest problem, economic exploitation and indebtedness, problem of industrial workers, child marriage, prostitution and venereal disease, language problem, tribal fine arts. degradation, the problem of food and clothing and the problem of education and religion, etc-etc.


  Economic Problems Due to the current cultural contact and new government policy, the tribal people are facing economic problems. Due to the new policy of the government related to land, forests were forbidden to be cut, hunting and liquor making were also banned in many areas, due to which the Kaga tribals had to adopt new ways instead of traditional ways of living. They were prohibited from cutting wood from forests, doing shifting cultivation and getting other things. They were forced to leave their native places and go to work in tea gardens, mines and factories. Now they started working as landless agricultural laborers and industrial workers. Taking advantage of the helplessness of these people, the contractors and industrialists started taking more work from them at less wages. The living and working conditions of these people are also deplorable. In this way they have been economically exploited. Earlier barter was prevalent in the economy of these people, now they got acquainted with money economy. Traders, drug peddlers and usurers took advantage of this and duped the innocent tribals. They have become indebted and have either sold or mortgaged their agricultural land to moneylenders. Some of the tribes engaged in agriculture do shifting agriculture. They first set fire to the forests and then work on that land. After a few days, that land becomes uncultivable, then leaving it, they do agriculture in the same way at another place. The result of this is that soil erosion increases, valuable wood in the forests gets burnt and the yield also decreases. The economic problem of the tribes is related to the agricultural problem. Due to living in hilly areas, they lack cultivable land. Not only this, they also lack advanced animals, seeds, tools and capital, so agriculture is not very profitable for them.


   Social Problems Due to the contact between urban and civilized societies, many social problems have also arisen among the tribals. Earlier these people used to get married at a young age, but now child marriages are taking place which is the result of contact with Hindus. Due to the entry of money economy, now the bride price is also being taken in them. The people of the civilized society look at the child youth homes prevalent in the tribes with an inferiority complex. Youth-home was the center of entertainment, social training, means of fulfillment of economic interests and education among the tribals, but now this institution is coming to an end, as a result of which there have been many harmful effects. Taking advantage of the poverty of tribals, contractors, moneylenders, businessmen and civil servants establish inappropriate sexual relations with their women, due to which the problems of prostitution and extra-marital sex relations have flourished.


  Health related problems (Problems Related to Health) Most of the tribes live in dense forests, hilly areas and lowlands. Many diseases are found in these parts. Due to wearing wet and dirty clothes, they get many skin diseases. Malaria, jaundice, small pox, rheumatic fever, indigestion and genital diseases are also found in these people. There is lack of hospitals, doctors and facilities of modern medicines for the treatment of diseases. This

People are using wild herbs, exorcism and witchcraft. Most of the tribals are ignorant of the rules of health. Nutritious food is also not available to them. These people have been using alcohol made from mahua, rice, palm, jaggery, etc. In its place, English liquor is now being used which is more harmful. Even in the absence of balanced diet and vitamin rich food, the health of these people is deteriorating day by day. As a result, there has been a decrease in their efficiency and capacity. The population of many tribes is getting destroyed. The biggest reason for the decrease in the population of the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar is the disease prevalent in them.


  Problems Related to Education – Tribals lack education and they are growing up in the darkness of ignorance. Due to illiteracy, they are surrounded by many superstitions, evils and bad rituals. The tribal people are indifferent to the present education as it is unproductive for them. People who get modern education go away from their tribal culture and look at their original culture with hatred. Today’s education does not provide a sure means of livelihood. So educated people have to face unemployment. Christian missionaries have done the work of spreading education among the tribes, but their objective behind this has been to propagate Christianity and to convert the tribals. Most of the tribals are able to get primary education only, they are not much interested in higher technical and science education.


  Problem of Political Awakening After independence, all the citizens of the country have been given democratic rights by the constitution and they have been made partners in governance. Today the representatives from Panchayat to Parliament are elected by the general public. Political parties play an important role in a democracy. The traditional political system of the tribes was of its own kind, in which mostly the hereditary chiefs used to do the administrative work. The rights and kinship given in their entire political system had special importance, but today they have become familiar with the new political system. They are also entitled to vote, aware of their socio-economic problems, have started using their political rights in the context of solving their problems. Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh. His political awareness has yielded bitter results in Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. His relations with administrators, landowners and tribal people have been strained. Political tension and rebellion have flourished in many places. They have demanded an autonomous state. Today they understand that their compulsion of small numbers has been taken advantage of by tribal groups and they have been exploited. They have a strong resentment towards this exploitation which flares up every now and then. Politicians are worried that this political awakening should not take a violent form in the future.


To Find out the Weakest Link The Commissioner of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in his annual report for 1967-68 has described one of the problems of the tribes as finding out the weakest link. The Scheduled Tribes of the country are poverty-stricken, but there are some tribes who are relatively poorer. Similarly, tribes have been neglected, but some tribes have been the most neglected. So the biggest problem is to find out the most poor and neglected tribe which is the weakest link of the tribes. Special programs should be made for the development and progress of this weak link and their needs should be fulfilled. The Tribal Commissioner has detected such weak links in various states. Charan, Dubla, Nai Kada and Barli tribes in Gujarat; Baiga, Gond, Maria, Bhumia, Kamar and Mawasi tribes in Madhya Pradesh; Bhotia, Jansari, Tharu tribes in Uttar Pradesh; The Bhil, Dabhor and Hariya tribes in Rajasthan come under the weakest link. The problem of weak link tribes is severe and serious as compared to other tribes.


   Problem of Integral tion – Many differences are found in Indian tribes on the basis of economy, social system, constitutional arrangements and welfare schemes 431 3 Culture, religion and political system. They are different from other people of the country. Today, there is a need that collective efforts should be made by all the countrymen to get rid of the specific problems of the country and the tribes. The tribes should consider themselves separate from other people and connect them with the main stream of life of the country, only then we will be able to deal with the problems of poverty, exploitation, ignorance, illiteracy, disease, unemployment and poor health. To deal with these problems, cooperation and integration of various people groups into the main stream of national life is necessary. For this, minority groups will have to be made partners in the country’s economic-political economy and will have to be taken along with them in development plans. Thus integration of tribes is also a big problem.


Problems of Frontier Tribes – The problems of the tribes living in the North-Eastern Frontier Provinces are somewhat different from the problems of different parts of the country. China, Myanmar and Bangladesh near the north-eastern provinces of the country

Resh is Our relations with China have not been cordial for the last few years. Bangladesh, formerly known as East Pakistan, has been India’s bitter enemy. China and Pakistan have incited the spirit of rebellion among the tribes of the border provinces, helped them with weapons and gave shelter to the leaders of rebellious Naga and other tribes to go underground. Due to education and political awakening, the tribes of this region have demanded an autonomous state. For this they have done agitations and struggles. Therefore, the biggest problem today is to deal with the demand for autonomy of the tribes living in the border areas. Efforts have been made from time to time by the Government of India to solve the problems of the tribes. We will mention them here.


Constitutional Provisions Regarding Scheduled Tribes

The Fifth Schedule provides for the appointment of a Tribal Advisory Council consisting of a maximum of twenty members, of whom three-fourths of the members shall be from the Scheduled Tribes of the State Legislatures.

In Articles 324 and 244, the governors have been given privileges in the context of tribes.

There are some articles in the constitution which are applicable to Madhya Pradesh. Relating to giving special facilities to the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, etc. For these people there is an age limit for applying for jobs. They have been exempted from fees in educational institutions as well and some places have been reserved for them. S

  – 93rd Constitutional Amendment (2005) to provide reservation benefits to SC, ST and socially and educationally backward classes in private educational institutions (except minority educational institutions). The purpose of various provisions kept in the constitution is to bring the tribals at par with other citizens of the country. They have to be linked and integrated with the main stream of life of the country so that they can become partners in the economic and political business of the country. Pandit Nehru was also very interested in the development of tribes. They did not want anything to be imposed on them. He said that we should promote the development of their art and culture, respect their land rights, develop their self-governing ability and human character.

  The educational and economic interests of the Scheduled Tribes should be protected and they should be saved from all kinds of exploitation and social injustice. (Article 46)

– No restriction should be placed on their admission in the schools run by the government or getting aid from government funds. (Article 29, 2)

Removal of obstructions to the use of shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment, the cost of which is wholly or partly borne by the Government or which are dedicated to the general public. (Article 15, 2)

– The doors of public places of Hindus should be opened for all Hindus by law. (Article 25B)


Fixed seats should be reserved for the representatives of Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies on the basis of population till January 25, 2015. (Articles 324, 330 and 342).


– To empower the government to reserve seats for tribal people if they are not adequately represented in public services or government jobs and to consider the claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in appointments to government jobs. (Articles 16 and 335).


  For the purpose of welfare and interests of tribes, tribal advisory councils and separate departments should be established in the states and a special officer should be appointed at the center. (Articles 164, 338 and Fifth Schedule) (8) Special arrangements should be made for the administration and control of Scheduled Tribe areas. (Article 224 and the Fifth and Sixth Schedules).


– According to Article 244 (2), there is a law to establish District and Regional Council for the tribes of Assam.

– Part 6 of the Constitution, Article 164, provides for the establishment of Tribal Ministry in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa in addition to Assam.


  In Article 46 of Part 4 of the Constitution, it has been considered the duty of the state to pay special attention towards the progress of education and protection of economic interests of the tribes.


– Legal system to impose reasonable restrictions by the state on the general rights to move freely, live and settle in India and buy, hold and sell property in the interest of Scheduled Tribes. (Article 19, 5).


According to article 275 of the twelfth part of the constitution, the central government will give special funds to the states for tribal welfare and their proper administration.

  – Article 325 of the fifteenth part of the constitution states that no one shall be denied voting rights on the basis of religion, race, caste and sex.

In Article 330 and 332 of the sixteenth part, seats have been reserved for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.

Article 335 assures that the government will reserve a place for them in jobs.

In Article 338, arrangements have been made for the appointment of a special officer for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by the President. this official

Will submit its report every year.


  Administrative Arrangement Some areas of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan are ‘Scheduled’ under Article 224 and the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. The governors of these states report the Scheduled Areas to the President every year. The administration of Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram is done on the basis of the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution. According to this schedule, they are divided into autonomous districts. There are eight such districts—North Cachar Hills District and Mikir Hills District of Assam, United Khasi-Jaintia, Jowai and Garo Hills Districts of Meghalaya and Chakma, Lakher and Pavi Districts of Mizoram. Each autonomous district has a District Council consisting of not more than 30 members. Of these, four can be nominated and the rest are elected on the basis of adult suffrage. This council has been given some administrative, statutory and judicial rights.


Welfare and Advisory Agencies: It is the responsibility of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Central Government to make plans for the welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and implement them. In August 1978, a commission was established for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under Article 348 of the Constitution. It has a chairman and four members, the commission examines the provisions related to the security made for them in the constitution under the Civil Rights Act of 1955, 1955) and suggests appropriate measures. Parliamentary Committees The Government of India also appointed three Parliamentary Committees in 1968, 1971 and 1973 to examine the safeguards and welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Constitution. At present, a permanent committee of the Parliament has been formed, whose tenure of the members has been kept for one year. This committee consists of 30 members, out of which 2 are taken from the Lok Sabha and 10 from the Rajya Sabha. Welfare Department in the States Separate departments have been set up in the State Governments and Union Territories for the care and welfare of Scheduled Castes and Tribes. Each state has its own specific method of administration. In Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, separate ministers are appointed for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes under Article 164 of the Constitution. In some states, legislative committees have been formed like the parliamentary committees like the center.


  Representation in Legislatures: Through Articles 330 and 332 of the Constitution, seats have been reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Legislatures in proportion to their population. Initially this arrangement was for 10 years, which has been extended till January 25, 2020 under the 95th Constitutional Amendment (2009). This type of reservation has been made by the Parliamentary Act in those Union Territories where there are Legislative Assemblies. At present, 47 seats in the Lok Sabha and 557 seats in the Legislative Assemblies have been reserved for the Scheduled Tribes. Places have also been reserved in Gram Panchayats and other local bodies for the people of the implementation of the Panchayati Raj system.


  1. Reservations in Government Services for Scheduled Tribes in appointments to be made by open competition on all India basis or by any other means. 5 places have been reserved. For Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ posts in which appointments are made on local and provincial basis, each province and union territory reserves seats in proportion to the population of the Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes in appointments made on the basis of departmental examinations to be held in Group ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ and also in promotion in Group ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’ and ‘A’ 7% seats are reserved if not more than 66% direct recruitment is done in them. Group ‘A’ in which 2, 250 Rs. Places have also been reserved in promotions to posts with lower pay. Various types of relaxations have been given for providing representation in jobs to tribal people like relaxation in age limit, relaxation in suitability criteria, relaxation in unsuitability in selection, relaxation in experience qualification and Group ‘A’ research, scientific And relaxation in technical standards. The state governments have also made several provisions regarding the recruitment of Scheduled Castes in government services and giving them promotions. Some officers have been appointed to contact various ministries of the Central Government, who will see whether the orders to reserve places for them are followed or not. On February 25, 2007, the Central Government decided to provide reservation to SC and ST candidates from the year 2008 for admission to undergraduate medical and dental programs through the All India Entrance Examination.


The basic problems are related to the economic condition of the tribals. The entire tribal community in India is passing through an important phase of transition. Some of these problems are specific to certain areas while others are common to all tribal areas. among these

Many problems are a direct result of the changes taking place in the tribal community. HTML

E changes are also not uniform. Although; Some of the common problems tribals in India are facing are economic problems, geographical isolation problems, cultural problems, social problems, educational problems, religious problems, health problems, alcohol problems, etc.



  1. Economic problems

Tribal people are the economically poorest people of India. Most of them live below the poverty line. The tribal economy is based on crude type of agriculture. Most of the problems are related to economic problems.

The illiteracy and innocence of the tribals are exploited by the outsiders. The British land policies led to ruthless exploitation of the tribals in various ways. Those policies were basically in favor of landlords, landlords, moneylenders, forest contractors and administrative officials. Most of the tribals were landless. Their lands were grabbed by outsiders and this also resulted in unemployment. The tribals earlier had a lot of freedom to use the forest and hunt their animals. They are emotionally attached to the forests because they believe that their deities, the spirits, reside in the forests. Tribals who have been ‘deprived’ of their rights to land and forests have reacted sharply to restrictions imposed by the government on their traditional rights. A large number of tribals are either unemployed or underemployed. They are not happy that they are not getting a job that can keep them busy throughout the year. They also need to be helped to find secondary sources of income. Tribals are always forced to depend on moneylenders, there is lack of banking facilities.


  1. Problem of Geographical Isolation

The tribes are largely separated from the mainstream. Some of them are living in inaccessible physical areas such as deep forests, valleys or hills. It is difficult for them to mingle with others. Socially they are away from the developed society. Social isolation has caused severe social retardation. Due to geographical isolation, the developmental programs never touch the tribals. Tribals need to be saved from the effects of isolation.



  1. Cultural problems

Tribes have their own culture. The outsiders always consider the tribals as ‘savages’. The British rule has created an inferiority complex among the tribals towards their culture. Christian missionaries tried to propagate their religion. This led to the alienation of the tribals from their culture. On the other hand Hindu organizations spread Brahmanism and Hinduism in some of these areas. Some tribal leaders have started popularizing tribal religion. These conflicting propagandas have caused much confusion and conflict for them.



  1. Social Problems

Most of the tribes believe in mythology and superstitions. In these, child marriage, swapping of wives, homicide, infanticide, black magic, animal sacrifice and other harmful practices are found even today.

Hinduization has given rise to problems like dowry, divorce, untouchability, child marriage etc. The social status of tribals has worsened through Hindutva intervention. Studies have proved that due to Hinduisation, sanskritisation and modernization, the condition of tribes has deteriorated significantly.

Christianization of tribals has given rise to problems of alienation, alienation, religion conflicts and cultural confusion. Many tribals in the north-eastern states have become Christians during the last 100 years. Thus there is a large number of Christians among Khasis, Oraons, Bhils, Mizos, Nagas etc. As per estimates, tribal Christians constitute about 1/6th of the total Christian population of India. The impact of Christianization has adversely affected the traditional tribal cultures.


  1. Educational Problems

Illiteracy is a major problem among the tribals, who constitute 80% of the total tribes. Their educational backwardness is responsible for the socio-economic backwardness at the mainstream level. Most of the tribes are far away from contact with the civilized world and have no faith in formal educational organization. Many tribes are not even given information about schools, colleges or universities. They have no desire to educate their children. Tribal people who are engaged in agriculture need their children in the fields or forests, which leads to a high dropout rate. Formal education is not compatible with the tribal culture which also causes conflict. The medium of instruction is another hindrance in the promotion of education among the tribes. Most of the tribal languages do not have any script of their own. Hence tribal students are forced to learn in a ‘foreign’ language. The shortage of tribal teachers creates communication problems between students and outside teachers.



  1. Religious problems

The crisis on religious identity is a major problem of the tribals. Conversion and Hinduisation took place for them to lose their tribal identity, but not Hindu or Christian identity, as they are treated as double standards Hindu and Christian. they

have lost their traditional beliefs and values but have not developed a value system suitable for modernity. They have lost their traditional beliefs and values but have not developed a value system suitable for modernity. Their customs and practices have lost social meaning. That’s why they

are adopting urban lifestyle in the areas.



  1. Health Problems

Tribals are away from modern medicine due to ignorance. They are not aware of the sanitation related problems. They generally believe that diseases are caused by hostile spirits and ghosts. They have their own traditional means of diagnosis and treatment. typhoid, tuberculosis, leprosy,



Malaria and skin diseases are common among the tribes. But, their mistrust in modern doctors has forced them not to take advantage of modern medical facilities.

Alcoholism is a common problem seen in many tribes. Low self-esteem, exploitation of outsiders through providing alcohol, and social environment lead to more alcoholics and alcoholism as a disease is widespread in most tribes.

Many regional and local problems are also worsening the social condition of the tribals. The unscientific welfare programs implemented create harm rather than benefit. Administrative bodies are corrupt and funds are misused or exploited. Insurgency, insurgency and terrorism are recent problems among some tribes. The police and military forces incite the tribals to revolt against the establishment. There have been several rebellions and insurrections since 1772 in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram and Nagaland. Foreign infiltrators of bordering countries have exploited the innocence for their smuggling activities, contraband drugs and unlicensed weapons are smuggled in. Some tribals of the North-East have also been addicted to drugs.




Tribal unrest and rebellion

The severe economic exploitation, land grabbing, sexual exploitation and conversions have evoked strong reactions among the tribals. They are agitated by these exploitations, they have been rebelling against the ruling establishment for various reasons since the days of British rule. Important tribes involved in the 19th century Mansh rebellion were the Mizos, Kols, Mundas, Khasis, Garos, Santhals, Nagas and Kondhs. There have been many tribal insurgencies in the north-eastern frontier and central India even after independence, some of the contemporary movements are the Jharkhand, Gond, Nagra, Mizo and Bodoland movements.

It is possible to identify some major types of tribal movements:

1) Religious and Social Reform Movement

2) Movement for statehood or autonomy for tribal areas within the Indian Union.

3) Rebel movement for independence from the Indian Union

4) Movement to emphasize cultural rights

The major causes of tribal unrest have been identified as:

1) Government Failures

2) Political apathy

3) Lack of efficient tribal leadership

4) Unjust Forest Policy

5) Other alienation of tribal land

6) Irresponsibility and lack of accountability of Tribal Development Agencies

7) Forced cultural attribution



This is compounded by various social, political, economic and legal factors, which have contributed to the problem of tribal unrest.

tribal welfare program

The measures for the upliftment of tribals have been started since independence. british government

did practically nothing. The only thing the British did was to keep the tribals away from contact with the civilized people. The British policies of separating the tribals from the rest of the people aroused suspicion in the minds of the nationalists. He strongly criticized the British policy.

Various solutions have been presented to effectively deal with the tribal problems. Tribal problems have been seen from three perspectives.



1) Policy of Isolation Hutton and V Elwin have suggested that tribals should be kept away from the rest of the society. Isolating Adivasis in ‘National Parks’ or Reserves would solve two problems: 1) Adivasis would be in a position to maintain their identity. 2) They will be free from exploitation by outsiders. It was suggested that Adivasis should be given sufficient time to assimilate themselves with others.

2) Policy of assimilation Christian missionaries, Hindu social reformers and voluntary organizations have advocated assimilation. This approach suggested that helping the tribals to assimilate with the mainstream was the solution to the problems of the tribals. Some favored full assimilation into Hindu society. But this was impossible as the tribals were not ready to give up all their traditional beliefs, practices and values. This solution can also create religious, economic and moral degradation among the tribes

3) Policy of Integration: A policy of isolation is neither possible nor desirable and assimilation would mean imposition. Therefore only dialogue can provide the tribals with a betterment which will also help in maintaining their identity. This

Recommends resettlement of tribals on plains with others but away from isolated sites, this solution is criticized as it will cater to the needs of industrialists and capitalists. This subsidization can create ethical problems as they will be forced to give away more of their own kind.



These approaches have their own merits and demerits. No solution can be used before winning the confidence of the tribals. Modern culture should not be imposed on them. It is necessary to establish a harmonious compatibility between the material advancement of the tribal way of life and culture. As Nehru observed, ‘The tribal people have a varied culture and are certainly not backward. trying to make them second fiddle to themselves

There is no point in wishing.



Nehru proposed five principles as ‘Panchsheela’ as part of the policy of integration:

1) Nothing should be imposed on the tribals. The traditional culture of each tribe is to be encouraged.

2) Tribes having rights over land should be respected

3) Efforts should be made to train a team of its own people for administration and development work.

4) Over-administration of tribal areas with too many schemes of development should be avoided. We should not work in rivalry with their own social age-old cultural institutions.

5) The results of work should be judged on the basis of quality of human characters developed and not on figures or amount spent.

Based on ‘Panchsheela’, the government established 43 tribal blocks in different states to promote welfare programs for tribals. The government implements various projects and programs through the Tribal Welfare Department. Some of the measures for tribal welfare are given below:

1) Constitutional Safeguards

The Constitution of India has made several provisions to protect the interests of the tribals. Major articles are:

  1. Article 15 provides equal rights and opportunities without any discrimination.
  2. Reservation under Articles 16(4), 320(4) and 335 in employment to tribals.
  3. Under Articles 330, 332 and 334, seats have been reserved for them in the Legislative Assemblies.
  4. Under Article 19(5) tribals can acquire property and enjoy it in any part of the country.
  5. Under Article 339(2) the Central Government can give directions to the States in the formulation and execution of tribal welfare schemes, projects and programmes.
  6. Article 46 contains provisions protecting the economic and educational interests of the tribals.

In addition to the constitutional provisions, the government appoints committees, commissions and study groups from time to time. Kaka Kalelkar, (1953–55), Renuka Ray (1958–59), U.N. Dhebar (1960-61) and B.P. Mandel (1979-80) were some of those who headed various commissions.

2) Special Central Assistance

States are given special central assistance to supplement their efforts in tribal development. This assistance is for family oriented income generation schemes and minimum need program in the areas of agriculture, horticulture, minor irrigation, soil conservation, animal husbandry, forest, education, cooperatives and small scale industries.



  1. Economic Programs and Facilities

Various economic programs and projects have been launched to improve their economic condition.

  1. Development through five year plans
  2. Integrated Tribal Development Projects
  3. Establishment of multipurpose cooperative societies
  4. Establishment of Indian Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Association
  5. 20th Point Program
  6. Vocational Training in Tribal Areas
  7. Promotion of crafts and home industries
  8. Agriculture Development Program
  9. Promotion of labor interests of tribals
  10. Educational Facilities

Measures have been taken by the government to provide education facilities to the tribals. Schools are established in tribal areas. Students are supported by concessions, scholarships and stipends. Mid-day meal is provided. Special hostels have been set up for the tribals. st girls education

Pockets with low literacy have been established. Ashram schools began to provide basic education and vocational training for the tribes. Pre-examination training centers have been started at many places for ST. Girls and boys hostels were started for ST.

  1. Medical facilities

Various medical facilities have been provided for the tribals. Hospitals are established at some places. Mobile hospital facility has been provided in some areas. Several preventive and curative measures are taken for contact diseases like malaria, typhoid, small pox etc. Medical camps are organized in tribal areas.

  1. Research work

Tribal Research Institutes have been established in various states. These studies helped in identifying the real conditions, problems and challenges of the tribes in different places in India. These institutes are engaged in providing planning inputs to the State Governments.

  1. Voluntary Organization Participation

Voluntary organizations are also engaged in tribal upliftment. Organizations like Bharatiya Adim Jati Sevak Sangh, Bhil Seva Mandal, Kasturba Gandhi National Memorial Trust, Vanvasi Kalyanashram and many Christian, Hindu and Muslim organizations are some of the NGOs working in this area. The government gives grants-in-aid to NGOs working for the upliftment of tribals.



A critical appraisal of tribal welfare programs reveals that many projects were implemented properly. It was noted that tribal welfare schemes have become an area of exploitation. Even after spending crores of rupees by the government for the development of tribals, no benefit has reached the hands of the needy. Administrators, political leaders even social workers have used tribals as targets for their personal development. The tribal development program became one of the most prominent ‘white elephant projects’ in independent India. Officially, the government has spent lakhs of rupees for each tribe in many areas, but they have not received much benefit from it.

some of the scholars

Defects are:

1) The administrators have failed to understand the real problems of the tribals and their diverse issues. He considered the tribes in India as a single group.

2) The planners never took into account the relative numerical strength of the various tribes. difference is ignored

3) The administrators put forward a general program which was inadequate and unsuccessful in many tribal groups

4) In many projects the felt needs of the tribals were never taken into consideration. Priorities were never fixed keeping in view the immediate and distant needs.

5) A major portion of the funds allocated for developmental programs were spent on setting up schemes and project for payment of salaries to officials.

6) May’s educational and health programs were found to be of very poor quality.

7) Adequate food and water supplies were not supplied or did not reach the hands of the tribals. The dress and good domestic conditions were not well received by the Aborigines.

8) The new economic system has created new problems and challenges for the tribals. Unemployment prompted them to borrow money from moneylenders and this itself created a lot of problems. No adequate measures have been taken to deal with these issues

9) The educational programs launched by the government have been found to be disappointing. The teachers were not properly trained to create a tribal friendly environment in the schools.

10) It is also observed that many State Governments have failed to utilize the funds effectively.

Much has been done for the tribals, much remains unfinished. The progress achieved in this area is far from satisfactory. The basic perception of tribals as an object of development has to be changed. The concept of civilization should not be imposed on the tribals. The notion of development for outsiders was not suitable for the tribals. It never satisfied on supplementing the special socio-cultural qualities of the tribes. It destroyed the self-esteem and confidence of the tribals by making them dependent and helpless. A socio-anthropological approach has to be developed for tribal development. The involvement of NGOs has to be supported and moderated for better results.





Welfare Programs:

1) Programs for on the job training

2) Production Training Center

3) Financial assistance for appearing for the interview

4) Pre Exam Tray

inning centers

5) Technical training in private institutions

6) Employment oriented education and other technical training

7) Self Employed

8) Housing Project

9) Assistance for maintenance of houses

10) Financial assistance for repair of houses and wells

12) land for building a house

13) Financial Assistance for Partners in Mixed Marriages

14) Cooperative Societies

15) Special Loan






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