Types of Research Design 

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Classifications or Types of Research Design 



Different research structures have been classified on a number of grounds. In general, research can be classified on the basis of two

1. depending on the purpose of the study, and

2 . Based on the approach of study.


On the basis of the object of the study – Revise the research works on the basis of the purpose of the study. can be divided into the following four subclasses

A. Exploratory Research F Design ;

B. Descriptive or Diagnostic Research Design ;

C. Experimental Research Design; D. Evaluative Research Design.


2 . On the basis of the approach of the study – On the basis of the approach of the study, research structures can also be placed in five sub-categories. survey research design; B. Research Structure Related to Field Studies C. Experimental Research Structure : D . Historical Research Structure; E. Research design for individual studies. But many social scientists have also based the research design on many grounds. But classified into several types. Claire Seliz and others in their work ‘Research Methods in Social Relations’ have classified the research structure into three major categories. .


1. Formative or Exploratory Studies – Its basic purpose is to study more precisely, or to develop hypotheses or to establish priorities for advance research.


2 Descriptive or Diagnostic Studies – The purpose of such structures is to describe the characteristics of a given situation.


3. Experimental Studies – The purpose of such structures is to test hypotheses.

Palmed J. Kanh has also mentioned four types of research structures on the basis of the level of design.

1. Random Observation Pre – Research Phase ,

2 . exploratory or explanatory study,

3. diagnostic or descriptive study,

4. experimental designs.


According to Sanford Lebowitz and Robert Hagdorn, research structures can be classified into three categories:

1. Case Studies,

2 . Survey Designs , A . Correlational Study B. Panel Design

3. Experimental Design, we will not present the classification of any one scholar here, but on the basis of these, we will explain the main structures in detail. According to us, the main research structures can be divided into three types, they are

1. Explanatory or exploratory research design.

2 . Descriptive or diagnostic research design.

3. Experimental research design.



Exploratory or Formative Research Design: Exploratory research design is the design whose purpose is to discover unknown facts, that is, to get new insights about the facts, so that realistic problems can be formulated or hypotheses can be made. Before conducting any structural study, this research design or design is also used by the researcher to obtain information about a topic, to clarify concepts, to ascertain priorities for advance research or to find out important problems etc. is constructed.

The following three methods can be helpful in the creation of an exploratory research design or design:

(1) the revision of the social sciences or other related literature;

(2) Survey of experienced persons related to the study problem and

(3) Insight – Analysis of persuasive examples.


Revision of literature is the simplest and most beneficial method by which research problem can be clarified and hypothesis can be made. This gives the researcher an opportunity to apply many concepts and theories propounded by other scholars in his field of study. The researcher gets new ideas from the survey of experienced people and the relationships found in different variables are also clear.

If the help of such experienced persons is not available, then insightful examples can also prove to be very helpful. Some selected examples are studied in this. The material available for this work can be observed or unstructured interviews can be done or any other means can be used. Most of the studies being conducted in India are exploratory in nature, as their aim is to discover new things. With the help of these studies, hypotheses are later made. Such research designs are more flexible and as the researcher comes to know about different aspects of the problem, he keeps on incorporating them in his study.


Descriptive Research Design: Descriptive research design or design is one whose purpose is to obtain complete, accurate and detailed information about the problem. By this, real facts are collected and on the basis of these facts a descriptive description or illustration of the problem is presented. The basic requirement of this type of structure is accuracy or complete information. Therefore it is constructed in such a way that the bias is minimum and the credibility of the facts is high. Portrait of community by research design, age distribution of its members, national and religious background, physical and mental health and level of education or 5 = community facilities, type of houses, number of libraries available and crimes or structure and behavior of social organization Various subjects have been studied like major models of . This design has been used in studies related to the depiction of tribes, the structure of social organization and the number and description of crimes.



The following stages of descriptive research design or design have been described by the Saltis, Jahoda and other scholars:

(1) the determination of the objectives of the study;

(2) the formulation of the methods of collection of facts;

(3) Selection of the sample

(4) Collection and testing of material and

(5) Analysis of the results


Thus, the first step of descriptive studies is to clearly explain the objectives of the study so that appropriate material can be collected. Then comes the question of selection of methods for collection of material. Keeping in view the nature of the research problem and the whole, it is decided that which method will be most suitable for the proposed study. Sometimes more than one technique is used together. Descriptive studies are based on sampling and it is essential to take a prior decision about the appropriate sampling method and the size of the sample.


Diagnostic Research Design As mentioned earlier, the basic objective of research is the acquisition of knowledge and the growth of knowledge. But it may also happen that the purpose of research work is to obtain real knowledge about the causes of a problem and to present solutions to that problem. This type of research design or design is called diagnostic research design. That is, the research work that seeks to find a solution to a specific social problem is called diagnostic research. In this type of research, the researcher presents the solution to the problem, rather than trying to solve the problem himself.

Solving the problem is the job of the social reformer, administrator and leader. The researcher only after taking the causes of the problem through scientific methods, discovers the way in which the proper solution can be done in the best way. That is why in diagnostic research, an attempt is made to get into the depth of the problem by doing a complete and detailed study of the problem in a scientific manner so that each possible cause of the problem could be detected properly. This type of search is done because the problem-specific needs to be solved immediately. Keeping in mind the possible solution, the hypothesis is made so that the study can be done scientifically.



Experimental Research Design: An experimental research design is designed to study the relationship between two variables, like an experiment in a laboratory. In this a controlled group is made and another experimental group. The control group is allowed to remain as it is, while in the experimental group the factor whose effect is to be seen is exposed. All the steps of the scientific method are followed in the study.

There are three types of experimental research

(1) After – only experiment – Under this, two groups with similar characteristics and nature are selected in all respects, out of which one group is called the control group and the other is called the experimental group. No change is brought in the control group, whereas in the experimental group, an attempt is made to bring about a change by any one factor. Thus, if the first group differs from the second group, then the same factor is considered to be the cause of that change. For example, in one of the two similar groups, which is considered as the test group, co-education may be spread. After some time that group should be compared with the other. If there is some difference (like more incidents of love-marriage) between the two, then it will be considered due to co-education.

(2) Before – after experiment – Under this, only one group is selected for study and the same is studied before and after a particular condition. The difference between these two studies is seen and it is considered as the result of the changed situation. For example, the study of joint family system is done before industrialization and after industrialization and if the comparison of these two studies shows that before industrialization the joint family was in organized state whereas after industrialization the process of disintegration started in it. So the disintegration of joint family will be considered as the result of industrialization.

(3) Expost-facts experiment – This type of test is done to study a historical event. But repeating historical events is not in the hands of the researcher. So he chooses two groups, in one of which the event (which he is to study) has happened while in the other has not. By making a comparative study of the chronic conditions of these two groups, an attempt is made to find out for what reasons the group in which that event has happened. In short, the discovery of the causes of current events or states by examining historical event-cycles is called action-fact testing.




Comparison of Exploratory and Descriptive Research Format Exploratory and Descriptive Research


The models can be compared on the following grounds, the descriptive research model is more structured than the exploratory research model.


1. In the exploratory research model, the hypothesis is formed at the end of the study, whereas in the descriptive research model, the hypothesis is formed at the first stage itself and then it is checked.


2. Hypothesis is more specialized in the descriptive research model than in the exploratory research model. It is also possible to use both the research models in the same study, for example, first using the exploratory research model, after getting information about the problem, the hypothesis is formed in the end and then this hypothesis is checked by descriptive research. .


3. Investigative research form is used when the problem is completely new for the water researcher. On the other hand, the descriptive research format is used, the public research is completely free from the problem. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Sociology combines qualitative methods for the study of supply deficits and uses quantitative methods for the study of density. Where which method will be used, it depends on the nature of the subject. In the study of any subject, both qualitative and descriptive species are used together. Here we will consider these. Qualitative methods: Abstract facts are studied with the help of species, they are called qualitative methods.

Facts or events agreed upon in Sociology. For example, to study social relations, social values, beliefs, beliefs, tendencies, etc., only qualitative methods are mainly used. The qualitative methods used in sociology are as follows:


1 Arrival and Incorporation Law,

2 Individual Life Study Methodology,

3. sociometry,

4. social distance measure, and

Community study method.


Quantitative Methods The methods used to study concrete facts or events are called quantitative methods. They are also used extensively in sociology. These methods are as follows


1 Social Survey Methodology,

2 Statistical Method

3. historical method.

4. comparative method and

5. Structural-functional method.

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