Urban Governance Five Year Plans Local Self Government

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 Urban Governance: Five Year Plans, Local Self Government

India is going through a phase of massive urbanization. The process of urbanization has concentrated in the developed areas leaving behind the backward states. Moreover, the big cities have registered higher growth than the smaller cities. Large municipal bodies with a strong economic base, especially those located in developed states, have an advantage in this regard which is manifested in their higher economic and demographic growth. For several decades after independence, the urban problem was ignored by policy makers and urban researchers.

  This was mainly due to the fact that India was essentially a rural agricultural country and neither had a large proportion of urban population nor industrialization as in later years. However, in recent years there has been a huge increase in urbanization as well as industrialization. This process of urbanization and industrialization has put pressure on the capacity of city-related institutions to meet the demand for land, shelter, infrastructure and services.


  urban government

It is drawn from the concept of governance in relation to urban areas to contemplate how the various components of public service delivery are organized to enhance the welfare of citizens. The definition and process of urban or municipal administration are essentially those that pertain to governance in general.


Five Year Plans:


An assessment of urban policy in India since independence points to the fact that much of what has been allocated has been ineffective in practice. According to the Indian Constitution, urban policy and policy are state subjects. Without a constitutional amendment, the central government does not have the power to pass laws on urbanization and urban planning. It can issue directions, provide advisory services, establish model laws and fund programs that states can follow. On the other hand, despite being empowered to do so, very few


State governments have taken policy measures in this area and what has come is the allocation of resources to the urban sector by the central government and the statements on urban policy expressed in the national five-year plans which are of considerable importance.

India’s First Five Year Plan (1951–1956) and Second Plan (1956–1961) were less critical of the urban sector but recommended legislation to regulate urban land policies. The need for planned development of urban areas was recognised, but the emphasis was on housing problems, partly due to the refugee problem in post-Partition India. The Ministry of Urban Affairs was established in 19514. The Town and Country Planning Organization was established in 1957. The Delhi Development Authority was established by Parliament to implement a master plan for the city. This was a major step in the beginning of town planning in India.

It was in the third five-year plan (1961–1966) that the government formulated an urban plan and land policy for the first time. The need for public intervention was clarified at the end of the Third Plan period in a report published by the Urban Land Policy Committee appointed by the Government of India. With regard to the public management of urban land and the rationalization of land use in individual cities, the Third Plan can be considered significant for urban policy making in India.

Special attention was paid to urban policy during the third and fourth five year plans. The policy of shifting industries away from cities took shape and great emphasis was laid on improving the administrative structure in cities and towns. The Fourth Plan (1969–1974) saw the establishment of the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) to provide funds for housing and urban development projects to metropolitan authorities, state housing boards and other state institutions. Many big urban projects were started. It saw the development of new state capitals like Chandigarh, Gandhinagar and Bhopal. Emphasis was laid on administrative reforms. The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974–1979) and the Sixth Five Year Plan (1980–1985) had sub-chapters on urbanization and urban affairs. serious

urban problems

Identified. Financial incentives were given to deal with the problems of the underprivileged. The Fifth Plan provided a more detailed account of urban problems. The Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act 1976 was enacted to promote equitable distribution of urban land and to discourage land speculation in large urban centres.

It was proposed to cap private holdings and the excess land was to be handed over to governments for undertaking development activities. The Act, however, failed to produce the desired results due to legal and procedural loopholes and was repealed in 19914. Sixth Plan laid


Emphasis on decentralization It focused on housing problems and noted low levels of urbanization in states such as Bihar, Orissa, Assam and high levels in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. A centrally sponsored scheme called Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns was launched to facilitate development in towns with a population of less than 100,000. However, this plan did not get much success.

The Seventh Five Year Plan (1985–1990) stressed the need for integrated development of small and medium towns and the need to slow down the growth of large towns. It sought to strengthen the municipal administration. The need for greater devolution of funds was emphasized and hence the powers were given to the urban local bodies. At the end of the Seventh Plan, the Nehru Rozgar Yojana was launched with the objective of providing more employment opportunities to the urban poor. The Eighth Plan (1992–1997) addressed some of the emerging issues reflected in the report of the National Urbanization Commission. It designed programs to deal with urban poverty, environmental degradation, housing, etc.

The Ninth Plan (1997–2002) focused on the following objectives:

Development of urban areas as economically efficient, socially equitable and environmentally sustainable institutions.

Accelerated development of housing, especially for low income groups and other disadvantaged groups

Development and upgradation of urban infrastructure services to meet the needs of the growing population.

Eradication of urban poverty and unemployment.

To promote efficient and affordable mass urban transport system in metropolitan cities.

improvement of urban environment

Promoting private sector participation in the provision of public infrastructure and community and non-governmental organizations in urban planning and management of specific components of urban services.

Democratic decentralization and strengthening of municipal administration.

Keeping the above objectives in mind, the Ninth Plan prioritized the housing needs of all sections of the population, especially households living at the lower end of the housing markets (SC/ST/PWD/slum dwellers and women headed households). family with). The government acted as a facilitator by providing incentives and concessions to attract the private sector to undertake housing for the poor. State government also decentralized

Responsibility of Urban Local Bodies to take care of access to drinking water, sanitation facilities and connectivity.

The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002–2007) emphasized the need to take into account the Constitution (74th Amendment Act) in 1992, which called for ‘a greater focus on decentralization and the creation and management of a democratic government structure with local responsibilities’. was given for locally’.

The Tenth Plan recognized that the real challenge for sustainable development in the urban sector was to strengthen the urban local bodies. Emphasis has also been laid on introducing and promoting Public Private Partnerships for improving efficiency and better service delivery. The plan laid emphasis on a national policy on slums. The major issues of civic services in urbanization for the 10th Plan under the decentralized urban local body structure were to prevent slums and illegal colonies, road congestion and environmental degradation. A lot of work has already been done to upgrade the urban infrastructure. Urban development authorities have gained considerable skill in planning and implementing projects and programs such as mega city projects for selected cities, integrated development for small and medium towns and accelerated urban water supply programmes. Urban needs.

The following objectives have been set for urban development in the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012):-

  1. a) Strengthening of Urban Local Bodies through capacity building and better financial management
  2. b) Increasing the efficiency and productivity of cities by regulation and development of land.
  3. c) End the monopoly of the public sector on urban infrastructure and create a conducive environment for private sector investment.
  4. d) Establish an autonomous regulatory framework to oversee the functioning of the public and private sector.
  5. e) reducing the incidence of POV
  6. f) Using technology and innovation on a large scale.

The government is assisting the urban local bodies and state governments through various schemes and special central assistance under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission launched by the government to improve infrastructure related to water supply and sanitation in urban centres. Water supply and sanitation have been given priority among the eligible components and about 40%

Expenditure will be done on water supply and sanitation sector. help

Other sources are identified such as central sector outlay, institutional funding, state sector outlay, assistance from external aid agencies, foreign direct investment and private sector.

Achieving successful results in all these dimensions is not easy and the impact of the initiatives taken today will take time to manifest, nor is it easy to assess the extent of success.






local self government

Local self-governance refers to the government run by the local people themselves who formulate and implement their plans for economic development and social justice in their respective areas through elected representatives and officials. Local self-government is basically concerned with providing civic amenities to the local residents through a three-tier structure. The local self-governing institutions in rural areas are Panchayat, Block Samiti and Zila Parishad.

Urban areas include local government institutions i.e. towns, cities and metropolitan cities with municipal corporations at the top, city councils in the middle and city committees at the bottom. His policies focused on better urban planning, more transportation, better sanitation and rational water use, energy conservation, urban farming, and waste recycling.

The process of urbanization and urban development in India since the beginning of the 20th century has seen a steady increase in the size of the urban population. In the 2001 census, 35 urban agglomerations with a population of more than one lakh accounted for about 11% of the population. Due to urbanisation, cities/towns are unable to accommodate more and more people due to poor urban management and lack of resources. The living environment of urban areas is deteriorating rapidly due to chronic lack of better roads and transport, education and other physical facilities.

Under the 74th Amendment Act, urban local bodies are to administer 18 subjects listed in the Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution, including town planning; regulation of land use and construction of buildings; planning for economic and social development; roads and bridges; water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes; public health; Cleanliness; protection and concrete


waste management; fire services; urban forestry; Protection of environment ; Protecting the interests of weaker sections of the society, slum improvement and upgradation, provision of urban civic amenities like parks, gardens, playgrounds, promotion of cultural and educational aspects, graveyards and cemeteries; Public facilities including cremation grounds, street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public facilities. These subjects are of great importance for providing need based services to the citizens. But it is a matter of serious concern that in most cases the local self-government bodies are unable to provide the best quality goods and services due to inherited weaknesses.


Municipal Organization Network:

Municipal Corporation is the local self-government in very large cities with a population of 7-8 lakh people or more. There are about 75 municipal corporations in India. In some states they are also known as Mahanagar Palika. Municipal Corporations are elected bodies. The number of members may vary from corporation to corporation. They are directly elected by registered voters. The city is divided into wards for elections. The candidate should be a resident of the city and his age should be 25 years. The elected members are called councillors. Some seats are reserved for women and SC/ST. The members of the corporation elect a mayor and deputy mayor from among themselves. The mayor is also called mayor. The Mayor presides over the meetings of the Corporation with the assistance of the officers of the Corporation. There is a team of officers working in the corporation. They include the Commissioner who is the highest authority. He is usually an IAS officer and appointed by the state government. He acts as a general advisor and manager of the corporation and is also the link between the people and the councillors. in addition to the commissioner

There is a health officer who looks after the health care, hospital and dispensaries of the corporation. The officer also supervises sewage disposal, pest control and the supply of clean drinking water. There is a chief engineer who directs the construction, construction and repair of roads and streets, bridges, drainage, etc. Then there are education officers, executive officers, octroi inspectors, etc.


Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGB)

The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation or Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai or Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) is the civic body governing the city of Mumbai. It is the richest municipal organization in India and is responsible for the municipal administration in Mumbai. Its annual budget is more than the budget of some small states of India. Established under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, it is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city and some suburbs of Mumbai. The entire constitution and functioning of the Municipal Corporation is governed by the Municipal Corporation Act 18814. The Act has been amended several times to incorporate changes in jurisdiction and functions. Since its inception in 1882 as India’s first municipal corporation, several non-political groups, NGOs and citizens’ organizations have partnered with the civic body in the fields of education, public health, creation of civic amenities, arts and culture. have worked together. Heritage Conservation.

The corporation is headed by a Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer. He exercises the executive power of the House

Is. An election is held to choose the councilors in power. They are responsible for seeing that their constituencies have basic civic infrastructure, and that there is no laxity on the part of the authorities. The mayor (a largely ceremonial post with limited duties) leads the party with the largest number of votes. The Municipal Commissioner is a key figure in the overall local self-governance system that has evolved in Mumbai over a century. He is one of the officers under the BMC Act. He has been appointed by the Government of Maharashtra under section 54 of the BMC Act. He is responsible for the various infrastructure of the city such as water supply, roads, storm water, drainage and efficient delivery of various services to the citizens of Mumbai. He is assisted by Additional Municipal Commissioners, Deputy Municipal Commissioners, Assistant Commissioners and various Heads of Department in the discharge of his functions.

The corporation’s legislature, also known as the corporation council, is (as of 2009) composed of 227 members. BMC is responsible for most of the areas of Mumbai. His territory extended from Colaba in the south to Mulund and Dahisar in the north. Some areas like defense land, Mumbai Port Trust land and Borivali National Park area are outside their jurisdiction. The city is divided into alphabetical wards from A to T. Each ward has its own ward office which oversees its area. Municipal administration consists of municipal officers and special engineers, city engineers, hydroelectric


Engineer, Executive Health Officer, Education Officer, Municipal Secretary, Municipal Chief Auditor and others.

The BMC prepared a Comprehensive Development Plan for Greater Mumbai in 1964 and was approved by the government in 1967. Following are the main objectives of the scheme:-

  1. a) To develop the structure of the city and remove the defects.
  2. b) To encourage residential activities in suburban areas with a view to decongest the city.
  3. c) Dispersal of population to suburbs and decentralization of industry and commerce from the city with the city’s objectives of redevelopment of congested areas in the city to reduce transportation problems.
  4. d) Discourage expansion of commercial establishment through zoning and floor space index, control and creation of other commercial centers in Greater Mumbai.
  5. e) Increase in housing construction, provision of additional sites for schools, playgrounds, parks, hospitals, markets, entertainment venues and public utilities.
  6. f) Road widening, construction of new roads in the suburbs and improvement of roads in the city and suburbs.
  7. g) Improvement of about 27 miles of low lying areas for development.
  8. h) To ensure that all development in Mumbai conforms to the planned pattern.

The functions of the Corporation can be broadly classified into two categories: Policy making and approval:-

Executed and approved as per approved policy

The development plan proposes several measures to improve the transport conditions and relieve the city from the menacing transport problems. The measures include widening of roads in the city and suburbs, construction of new roads, multi-storey and provision of additional parking spaces. a number of

Proposals for development plans relating to the development of public utilities, civic amenities, medical and public health facilities and educational facilities have been included.

Under the district plan, the state government gives grants to the BMC for some development projects. District Plan for Greater Mumbai stresses the need to improve living conditions


Mumbai by improving water supply. Sewerage, slum improvement, housing etc. have been given priority in the plan. Provision has been made for relief to the educated unemployed by providing financial assistance, apprenticeship training and creating employment opportunities. Since 1989 an independent ward officer has been appointed to help and accelerate the Prime Minister’s grant project and look after the Dharavi slum in Mumbai. To strengthen the management and service of the BMC, the government established the Thane Municipal Corporation in 1982 and the Kalyan Municipal Corporation in 1983. These are responsible for a wide range of civic services including waste and sewerage, bus transport, public health, medical services, concrete. Garbage collection, education, road traffic control, slum improvement. The Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation was established in 1992 with the hope of levying taxes on the heavily industrialized area. The Navi Mumbai project was proposed and promoted by the Government of Maharashtra and implemented by the Municipal and Industrial Development Corporation to reduce congestion and congestion in Greater Mumbai.

In 1978, the Committee on Urban Renewal Plans (Mumbai City) recommended that urban renewal plans should be implemented in a coordinated manner through joint efforts of the BMC and the Mumbai Housing Area Development Board. Further attention was paid to the pressing problem of Mumbai and certain surrounding areas and the need to create the Mumbai Metropolitan Region and to set up an authority for the planned development of the region and its surrounding areas. Thus the government appointed a Regional Planning Board for the Mumbai Metropolitan Region in 1967.


  Municipal Challenges:

There are a large number of municipalities in India, most of which are considered vulnerable and are facing a rapidly growing population.

Badi is having more and more problems meeting its infrastructure needs. What has generally made things worse in the past is that urban development has been low on the development agenda and has often been seen as a negative phenomenon. The crucial point is how best financial, managerial and technical resources can be mobilized to effectively deal with the situation. State level as well as local government will realize that there is no substitute for working in partnership with the private sector, NGOs and the community.


required resources. Existing legislation will also need to be reviewed and reformed to encourage housing construction and development and full expansion of the urban finance sector. Furthermore Indian cities are yet to discover and develop their tools for a sustainable development and the implementation of ecologically conscious urban development as indicated in the United Nations Agenda 21 has yet to be initiated at the local level. Environmental degradation and encroachment may require new regulations and penalties to examine their impact on urban development, land use and urban density.



Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA)

This authority is responsible for the development of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) which includes Mumbai. MMRDA was established on January 26, 1975 under the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority Act, 1974 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and coordination of development activities in the region. MMRDA endeavors to achieve balanced development of the area through the following strategies:

  • Preparation of perspective plans
  • Promotion of alternative development centers
  • Strengthening of infrastructure facilities
  • Provision of development finance

To implement these strategies, the MMRDA plans, formulates policies and programs and helps guide investment in the sector. In particular, it conceives, promotes and monitors major projects for the development of new growth centers and improvements in areas such as transport, housing, water supply and environment in the region. Moreover, if any project is of special importance, MMRDA takes up the responsibility of its implementation.


Some implemented projects:

Offices of financial institutions are being developed in G Block

Mahim Nature Park developed an area of about 15 hectares. In close collaboration with WWF at ‘H’ Block of Bandra-Kurla Complex

Wadala Truck Terminal Phase I which includes basic amenities

The design and construction of four buildings that will house warehouses, shops and offices has been completed.

The Oshiwara District Center promotes the development of commercial and residential blocks with the active participation of land owners, rather than resorting to the land acquisition process.


Bombay Urban Transport Project (BUTP)


The first Bombay Urban Transport Project (BUTP) started in March 1977 and was completed in June, 1984. The total cost of BUTP was Rs 391.4 million, including a loan of US$ 25 million from the World Bank. MMRDA was the borrower of the loan, and Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport Undertaking (BEST) and Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) were the executing agencies of the project. The project primarily focused on improving the bus transport system in Mumbai operated by BEST by procurement of buses, construction of flyovers, installation of traffic signals etc.

Under BUTP they have procured more buses for BEST (700), constructed flyovers (5) on main roads of Mumbai, installed new microprocessor based integrated traffic signals, constructed foot bridges and underpasses at important junctions and made provision for new bus shelters and terminals. ,

Mumbai Urban Development Project (MUDP)


The Mumbai Urban Development Project (MUDP) was successfully implemented during 1985–94 with the assistance of the World Bank. The project was formulated, coordinated and monitored by the MMRDA and implemented through the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA), Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), Municipal and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO), Thane Municipal Corporation (TMC) and Kalyan was implemented. Municipal Corporation (KMC). 88,000 serviced sites were developed in Greater Mumbai, Thane and Navi Mumbai under the Land Infrastructure Servicing Program (LISP). Under the Slum Upgradation Programme, 35,000 slum households were upgraded in Greater Mumbai. Some major infrastructure works like


Water supply and storm water drainage work was also done in Greater Mumbai and Navi Mumbai.

Mumbai Urban Transport Project

As a sequel to the Bombay Urban Transport Project (BUTP), which was launched in the year 1984 at a cost of around Rs. was completed at a cost of Rs. 390 million, the MMRDA with the assistance of the World Bank has drawn up a multi-modal project called the Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP) to improve traffic and transportation conditions in MMR. The MUTP envisages investment in suburban railway projects, local bus transport, new roads, bridges, pedestrian subways and traffic management activities. Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation (MRVC), a joint venture between the Railways and the Government of Maharashtra, is responsible for the implementation of rail projects under MUTP and other railway projects in MMR.

has been installed.

Proposed Skywalk in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR)


Transport interchange activities, transfer of passengers between trains, buses, taxis and private vehicles is the most congested station area. The problem is further compounded by roadside hawking and parking of vehicles. Dedicated Pedestrian Sky Elevated Walkway connecting Railway Stations/high density commercial areas and points where there is heavy foot traffic. The objective of the skywalk is for efficient dispersion of the commercial station/congested area at strategic locations. Helps in reducing the congested roads like bus stops, taxi stands, shopping areas, off road etc and vice versa. MMRDA has already planned to construct 36 nos. Skywalks in and around the Mumbai Metropolitan Region.


Urban governance is derived from the concept of governance in relation to urban areas, which refers to how the various components of public service delivery are organized to enhance the welfare of citizens.

Local self-government refers to a government run by the local people themselves who formulate and implement their plans for economic development and social justice in their respective areas through elected representatives and officials.


The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGB) is the civic body that governs the city of Mumbai. It is responsible for the municipal administration in Mumbai.

The Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) is

Responsible for the development of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) which includes Mumbai.





Urban Planning: Planning in Mumbai – Institutional setup and new planning process, Urban renewal and conservation, Citizen action, NGOs and social movements.


Due to the increasing problems of urban and metropolitan areas in developed countries also, urban planning attracts more attention of regional and city planners. The increasing concentration of people due to the natural growth of population and large-scale migration from rural to urban areas has led to an increase in population in these areas, leading to economic and social problems such as housing, traffic congestion as well as personal and social disorganization.

The concept of urban renewal was given attention under the Housing Act. in America in 1949. The housing legislation thus provided the basis for renewal programs aimed at eliminating substandard and other inadequate housing through the cleanup of slums and affected areas and thus contributing to the growth and redevelopment of communities.




Urban planning :-



According to the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, the purpose of urban planning is to meet social and economic objectives that go beyond physical form and the provision of buildings, roads, and utilities. Urban planning can include urban renewal by adopting urban planning methods for existing cities suffering from decay and lack of investment.

It also refers to social processes that involve a series of progressive steps to redevelop deteriorated sections of a city, create new communities in accordance with policy and goals, and involve physical and social planning. Physical planning includes area planning, communication planning and service planning. Area planning includes conservation and redevelopment. The communication plan deals with the construction of roads, bridges and subways. The services plan deals with the construction of new schools and maintenance of old ones and other services such as sewerage, garbage collection and disposal, parks and recreation services.

Social planning is specifically concerned with the welfare of the people belonging to the vulnerable, deprived and underprivileged groups.

Objectives of Social Planning:


To provide ample opportunities for enriching social relations and satisfactory development of individual persons




To help contribute to the strengthening and coordination of social services so that problems are dealt with efficiently and economically.

To deal with specific aspects of social maladjustment keeping in view the special needs of disabled, mentally challenged people and to lay down policies and welfare programs to meet their needs.

Some aspects of urban planning in India include town planning, regulation of land use for residential and commercial purposes, planning for economic and social development, construction of roads and bridges, water supply, public health care management, sewerage, sanitation and solid waste management. Are included. Protection of environment through sustainable development, providing proper infrastructural support to disabled and mentally retarded population of the society, organized slum improvement, phased alleviation or eradication of urban poverty, safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of the society, providing basic urban amenities increased provision for increased public amenities including public urinals, subways, footpaths, parks, gardens and playgrounds, street lighting, parking lots, bus-stops and public transport, proper maintenance of population data; Including registration of birth and death records.





  Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA)



Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA) was established in December 1977 with the objective of developing and increasing the housing scope and opportunities in the state of Maharashtra. The organization was established and is now expanding its services and services keeping in view the demand of real estate and housing services in the city.

is expanding and diversifying operations. Over the years, the percentage of residents in Mumbai is increasing in high numbers. Hence, keeping in mind the latest trend in housing, MHADA has taken strategic initiatives in the housing sector which will cover the entire state of Maharashtra.

There are nine Regional Boards under the jurisdiction of the Authority- Mumbai Housing A

D Area Development Board, Mumbai Building Repair and Reconstruction Board, Slum Improvement Board, Konkan Board besides Pune, Nashik, Nagpur, Aurangabad and Amravati Regional Boards. The jurisdiction of the Mumbai Housing and Area Development Board is limited to Dahisar and Mulund. territorial

  As per the provisions of the Act of Authority the Board shares the responsibility of works like housing, development of land, distribution/allotment of tenements or plots, maintenance, transfer of tenancy and lease agreement, and sale of deed i.e. transfer of societies and others. 1976 and in accordance with the provisions made by the State Government in the Regulations in 1981 (and as amended from time to time).

Under the MHADA Act, 1976, the Authority consists of a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman and five non-official members appointed by the State Government. The Government Secretary in the Housing Department and the Urban Development Department are ex-officio members of the authority.

The functions in which the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority involves itself are effective administration and corporate efficiency. It is in this way that the Maharashtra Housing Board, the Mumbai Building Repair and Reconstruction Board, the Vidarbha Housing Board, the Maharashtra Slum Improvement Board were created and established. The Board in its efforts and initiatives of various projects has always given importance to aspects like energy conservation, pollution, ecology and congestion by taking responsibilities in structuring, planning and execution of housing projects.

MHADA has been extremely prominent in Mumbai over the years, and has maintained its name and presence in housing with latest projects, which are also undertaken by private home builders. Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority has played a vital role in improving and enhancing the housing scenario in Mumbai state and neighboring areas. The recent projects launched by MHADA are in the areas of Dindoshi and Turbhe. Other areas that the board is trying to acquire are Vikhroli, Mulund and other suburban areas in the northeastern part of Mumbai.

City and Industrial Development Corporation of Maharashtra Limited (CIDCO)

The increase in the rate of population in the last few decades has resulted in a rapid decline in the quality of life of most of the people living in the city. The means of development could not keep pace with the rapidly increasing population, industry, trade and commerce. In addition, there were physical limits to the growth of the city on a long and narrow peninsula that had little connection to the mainland. On realizing the emerging problem, in 1958 the then Bombay Government (now Mumbai) appointed S.G. Barve to look into the problems of traffic congestion, lack of open spaces and playgrounds. housing shortage and excessive concentration of industries in the metropolitan cities and




suburban areas of the city, and to recommend specific measures to deal with them. One of its major recommendations was to build a rail-cum-road bridge over the Thane Creek to connect peninsular Bombay with the mainland. The group felt that the bridge would accelerate the development of the creek, relieve pressure on the city’s railway and roadways, and draw industrial and residential concentrations eastward to the mainland. The Government of Maharashtra accepted the recommendation of the Barve Group. To examine the metropolitan problems in the regional context, the government appointed Prof. Dr. Another committee was appointed under the chairmanship of Gadgil, the then director of the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, in March 1965. such plans.


The board recommended that a new metro-centre or Navi Mumbai as it is now called be developed to accommodate the population

21 lakhs. The recommendation was accepted by the Government of Maharashtra. Accordingly, the City and Industrial Development Corporation of Maharashtra Limited was incorporated on 17 March 1970 under the Indian Companies Act, 19514. By February 1970, the government had notified 15,954 hectares of privately owned land covering 86 villages and for acquisition. Within the present limits of Navi Mumbai. Further land belonging to 9 villages, measuring 2,870 hectares. was additionally designated in August, 1973 for inclusion in the project area. In March 1971, CIDCO was named the New Town Development Authority for the project. In October, 1971, CIDCO undertook to prepare and publish a development plan in accordance with the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (1966).

The corporation started functioning as a fully state government owned company

With an initial subscription capital of Rs. 3.95 crore from the government. It was entrusted with the development of necessary social and physical infrastructure and was also empowered to recover all costs of development from the sale of land and built-up properties.

The development of Navi Mumbai is aimed at providing physical, economic and social benefits to the new city by relocating industries, market and office activities.

Mumbai was to be decongested with respect to both population and commercial activities by making it more environmentally sustainable. Navi Mumbai’s influence on Mumbai’s development was reflected in the 1980s. The 1991 census recorded a decrease of 10 percent in the population growth rate of Greater Mumbai as compared to the previous decade. Development in the 1980s was negative at first for Island City (a part of Greater Mumbai). The reason for this phenomenon can be partly attributed to the increase of extended




suburbs, and partly to Navi Mumbai which provided an alternative route of development.

CIDCO aims to divert the flow of population in Mumbai to Navi Mumbai, provide them with another urban alternative and absorb immigrants from other states by providing basic civic amenities to elevate the standard of living of all socioeconomic levels. Its objective is to provide healthy environment and energetic environment for human resources to be utilized to their full potential.

Over 30 years of experience in urban development has earned CIDCO a reputation as the premier town planning agency in Maharashtra. Its success can be attributed to a progressive number of vice-chairmen and managing directors, who are assisted by joint managing directors from the IAS cadre. In addition it has a human resource of experienced experts from the fields of architecture, town planning, transport, telecommunication, engineering, land survey and development, economics, statistics, marketing, finance, accounting, community development, public health, social welfare, rehabilitation and training . ,


  Urban Renewal:



Urban renewal is a term of American origin. It is a program of land redevelopment in areas of medium to high density urban land use. Its modern incarnation began in the developed countries in the late 19th century and experienced a rapid phase in the late 1940s – under the title of Reconstruction. This process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, and has played an important role in the history and demography of cities around the world. It is the answer to the urban crisis which is an increasingly acute universal problem. With its multidimensional concept, it has generated multidisciplinary interest.

Urban renewal is a process of re-planning and comprehensive redevelopment of land structures, physical and social infrastructure, as well as the conservation and rehabilitation of areas that are at risk from degradation and erosion or in need of conservation because of historical and cultural ties to the city. the wanted. towns. Urban renewal is a process by which a large area gradually renews itself and changes its character to suit new socio-economic needs. It can be defined as the process of conserving, rehabilitating or clearing and rebuilding parts of a city for the protection of the physical environment or for modernization or urban adaptation.




Clause for new purposes or uses. Renovation becomes necessary not only because of degradation but also because of rising incomes, changing values, changing forms of transport and communication, and rapid urbanisation. Urban renewal includes the relocation of businesses, the demolition of historic structures, the relocation of people, and the use of eminent domain (government purchase of property for public use) as a legal means of taking private property for city-initiated development projects. It is possible In some cases, renewal can result in urban sprawl and less congestion when areas of cities receive freeways and expressways.

  Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, and by critics as a mechanism for control. It can aggravate existing communities, and in some cases result in the demolition of neighborhoods. Many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs. Over time, urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renewal and investment, and today it is an integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and large business incentives.





Problems of Urban Renewal:

As urban renewal is a constructive and reformative process, it faces several constraints in the process of achieving urban development. Some constraints are:-

  1. a) Economic problems: A major factor involved in urban renewal activities is related to the availability of funds with the city government. lack of enjoyment

Affects the level of investment in various urban welfare and development programmes. Furthermore, the renovation and reconstruction of dilapidated areas is hindered by vested interests and criminal gangs who have interests in the area.

  1. b) Legal problems: The legal problems of urban renewal refer to zoning regulations. The zoning regulations of many cities require that equal areas must be provided for all types of functions in the city. This restricts and distorts renovation activities related to housing adjacent to factory sites.
  2. c) Administrative problems: This refers to political pressure from interest groups to scrutinize plans for urban renewal. beyond




The inability of the city government to control the increase of crime in the cities also hindered the development and growth of the city.

Acts as a barrier to detoxification. The inability of the government to effectively and intelligently plan and control the future expansion of cities may be another factor that hinders renewal activities.

check your progress :-

(1) Explain urban renewal. problem.





Mumbai has indeed seen some new institutions emerging in response to the failure of the local government to provide goods and services to the satisfaction of the citizens. Participating institutions in Mumbai are: Bombay First (BF), a non-profit initiative of private corporates, and the Citizens’ Action Group (CAG), a state-appointed body to strategize and monitor initiatives for the development of the city of Mumbai. In addition, initiatives such as the Action for Good Governance Network of India (AGNI) and PRAJA emerged as civil society watchdog groups that partnered with local and state governments.

Bombay First (BF) is a private non-profit initiative launched by private corporates under the umbrella of the Bombay Chamber of Commerce and Industry with a vision to transform the city into a globally competitive city through economic growth, infrastructure and quality improvement. was created. Of life It drew inspiration from London First and structured its organization in line with London First. However, Bombay First’s mission remains larger – to address issues and problems facing the city through partnerships with government, business and civil society. Furthermore, Bombay First differs from London First in terms of methods; It proposed using research, catalysis, advocacy and networking as a means of achieving the mission, while London First uses the medium of dialogue, expert support and advocacy to influence decisions. Bombay First, under the guidance of the Bombay City Policy Research Foundation, began its work with a comprehensive diagnosis of the city’s development – its economic and social structure, reasons for certain activities and infrastructure declines, possible solutions and pilot scale projects. It commissioned relevant studies and conducted surveys, leading to a fresh understanding of constraining factors such as the composition and nature of employment, regional growth patterns and critical infrastructural constraints. Plus, later these studies really helped




To understand the problems of the city to find solutions. Bombay First (BF) spent a lot of time understanding and exploring issues related to the city of Mumbai. Only recently, its impact has been felt after synthesizing earlier works and providing a development perspective in the form of a Vision Plan.

Vision Mumbai: Transforming Mumbai into a world class city


For a long time, Mumbai’s development was envisaged under the development plans of the MCGM (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai), which exceeded the land use allocation plan. There was no way to understand the economic growth of Mumbai and provided for few interventions which help to sustain and surpass it. Recognizing the need for a holistic planning strategy envisaging regional development-driven economic growth, Bombay First collaborated with McKinsey & Company to draw up a vision plan for the development of Mumbai. The vision plan envisaged the city’s transformation on eight development levers – economic development, transport, other (social) infrastructure, housing, funding and governance. The vision was to be achieved over a period of ten years with the creation of new structures for city management, involving all service providers and agencies as well as the private sector, thereby significantly improving the qualitative and quantitative aspects of civic governance. However, to get the ball rolling, the plan envisaged 23 quick-wins that needed to be completed on a very short term basis, 1–2 years, and more. The vision plan had put the movement for Mumbai’s transformation at the forefront. A task force was constituted to look into the recommendations and submit its findings. The task force had six sub-groups and each of them looked into the recommendations in detail and thereby conceptualized a synthetic Mumbai Vision, which approved most of them.

Recommendations made in the Vision Mumbai Report The Vision Mumbai Report has also influenced the thinking about the city and its governance and raised the aspirations of the common citizens, which is now increasing the pressure on the civic authorities.

Source: Bombay First – McKinsey (2003)


An important development of the post-Vision Mumbai plan is the Citizen Action Group (CAG), which was constituted through a special government order to act as a monitoring and review group relating to the development of Mumbai. The CAG is a statutory body and a Special Secretary coordinates its meetings. This group has about 30 eminent citizens who internally and in association with the Chief Minister discuss the status of ongoing projects and new schemes envisaged by various agencies. Thus, it emerged as a partnership firm between




Government and private sector in decision making at the city level through agenda setting and monitoring the progress of government agencies related to the city of Mumbai with respect to plans, initiatives and projects. Besides CAG as an established group to monitor the development activities of the city, PRAJA, a non-profit initiative

It acts as a partner institution to take the grievances and views of the citizens to the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). Praja undertakes to improve the citizen interface in the form of project performance reports and complaint audits.

Citizen Interface Improvement Initiative in Mumbai


The MCGM established a system of interface with the public with the co-operation of the public to examine the department-wise and ward-wise performance and take some remedial action to improve service provision. The first project performance survey was conducted in 2000 and continued in 2001. It expressed the public perception of the MCGM largely in terms of the responsibilities that citizens believed it owed and the relative satisfaction with the services of the seven departments – water supply, traffic/transport, roads, sewerage, Department of Solid Waste Management and Licensing. Besides this, it was also planned to measure the performance of the wards using the Citizen Satisfaction Score. Water supply and transport departments performed better in general, and sewerage and environment departments performed worse in service provision. Similarly, satisfaction was better in major suburbs than in island cities. The survey also revealed that bribes were paid to get some services done and many citizens were not aware of corporators’ funds for improvements. Apart from measuring citizen satisfaction, a complaint audit system was set up in all the 24 wards. It was first implemented in the year 2000. The data was sourced from the BMC-PRAJA Online Grievance Management (OCMS), an electronic interface between citizens and the MCGM through the Internet. These complaints were classified according to their nature, wards and departments. In addition, both redressal of complaints, proportion of complaints redressed and speed of redressal were also examined through surveys and so was the general perception about MCGM. The system provided an electronic interface for citizens to explain and redress problems and while doing so to express their satisfaction over the manner and results of handling them. Citizens were also given an opportunity to explain the reasons for the delay like corruption.




Source: Executive Summary of the People’s Report (2005)


Action for Good Governance Network of India (AGNI) is a non-profit initiative of committed citizens that acts as an independent platform to monitor the process of city development – such as information on agendas of political parties, local elections monitoring and tracking candidate distribution – and inform the citizenship of the same (Indian NGO 2005)). It also partners with local government initiatives, such as monitoring public works and municipal solid waste management and street cleaning. It networks with local residents associations and neighborhood associations who come forward to do this work and tie up with local government municipal financial contributions. Delegation of local groups has also led to cost savings to local government. It has been successful in terms of local level management and decentralization of powers and services such as garbage collection and street cleaning.

(Nallathiga R, 2005, Institutional Innovations of Urban Governance: Some Examples of Indian Cities in Urban India Vol XXV, No. 2 (2005) pp 14-18)



Urbanization, industrialization and liberalization are increasing the pressure on cities with ever-increasing populations. Due to the growing problems of urban and metropolitan areas in developed countries, urban planning has attracted more attention from regional and city planners.

A comprehensive plan for urban administration was provided in the Five Year Plans. Local self-government is basically concerned with providing civic amenities to the local residents through a three-tier structure. His policies focused on better urban planning, more transportation, better sanitation and rational water use, energy conservation, urban farming, and waste recycling. Municipal Corporation is the local self-government in big cities. BMC is the civic body that governs the city of Mumbai. Headed by the Municipal Commissioner, it is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city and some suburbs of Mumbai. MMRDA is the apex body for planning and coordination of development activities in the region. Urban planning refers to social processes that involve a series of progressive steps to redevelop degraded sections of the city. 

Creating new communities in accordance with the policy and goals and incorporating physical and social planning. Urban renewal is the process of preserving, rehabilitating or clearing and rebuilding parts of a city in order to preserve or modernize the physical environment or to adapt urban areas to new purposes or uses. Some new institutions are emerging in Mumbai in response to the failure of the local government to deliver goods and services to the satisfaction of the citizens such as Bombay First, CAG, AGNI and PRAJA. They have emerged as civil society watchdog groups partnering with local and state governments.

New Sociology


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