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New Sociology

Tourism is an activity involving a mix of physical and psychological factors. physical ones are housing,

Transportation attractions and available entertainment. Psychological factors take into account a broad spectrum of attitudes and expectations. These attitudes and expectations vary from pure escapism, to dreams or fantasy, or to the fulfillment of leisure, entertainment, educational and other social interests.

The environment (landscape, water bodies, climate, forests and animal resources) provides the stage on which the human drama of tourism is enacted. Tourism, the most important aspect of a recently developed branch of recreational geography is essentially a post-independence phenomenon. It envisages a mass movement of people from their place of residence to new foreign territories for purely recreational purposes and for stays of several days. Nature provides the most important and necessary ingredients for the growth and development of this “smokeless/beauty/leisure industry”.

Tourism is an ever-growing service industry with huge latent growth potential and has become one of the important concerns of not only nations but also the international community as a whole. In fact, it has emerged as a crucial link in accelerating the pace of socio-economic development across the world. Thus it has become an important strategy in the process of growth and development. Most countries have sought answers in development through tourism entertainment industry by harnessing their historical-social, cultural and environmental resources. The emergence of tourism as a major growth industry is part of a gradual process involving displacement from its dominant position of manufacturing and transition to a service-oriented economy.


  Meaning and definitions of tourism –

Tourism is called a “smokeless industry” because it generates income, employment, wealth etc. i.e. creates ripple/multiplier effect, encourages innovations besides meeting human needs.

Tourism is exclusively a software product and with relatively high value addition.

lies in the tertiary/service sector and hence needs to be fully exploited. Tourism is one of the most influential phenomena in the economic and social development of society. Therefore, the study of tourism has come to acquire an increasingly important place in the academic and practical agenda of the world. Tourism, often thought of as a bygone era and thus a trivial activity, has over the years evolved into a highly complex phenomenon with diverse and multidimensional economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts.


Tourism is an activity of multifaceted, multidimensional nature involving multiple lives and mixed economic activities. In other words, it can be thought of as a whole series of individuals (hosts and guests, business organizations and places (destination)) that are put together in a particular way to generate a travel experience.

One of the three basic elements of tourism is the ‘human’ who is actually the traveller. The second is ‘Space’, the physical element covered and the third is ‘Time’ the cosmic element which is spent in traveling and staying at the destination. They create tourism.

Tourists, their stay, temporary nature and whatever purpose together constitute a ‘visit’.

Neil Lepen’s study makes it clear that the words ‘tourism’ and ‘tourist’ did not exist before the 16th century. Nevertheless, the word tour was used in the French context of the tower. This is further supported by the fact that the travel literature of the medieval era also contains expressions such as journey, voyage and its root form ‘travel’, as well as words denoting specific forms of travel such as pilgrimage.

Travel is deep seated in the primitive days of antiquity but tourism is a phenomenal phenomenon of the modern era. According to Burkart and Medlick (1974), travel refers to “travels made from one place to another for any purpose, including travel for work and as a part of employment, as part of leisure”. and to take up residence in” All tourism involves some travel but not all travel is tourism.

Tourism is an activity that occurs when people visit another place

A place for leisure or business and to stay at least 24 hours.

Tourism and travel are not synonymous. All tourism is leisure time oriented but not all leisure tourism. All travel is for leisure time but not all travel is given for tourism activities.

Tourism refers to the business of providing information, transport, accommodation and other services to travellers. The travel and tourism industry is made up of companies that provide services to all types of travelers, whether traveling for business or leisure.

To trace the original sense in which tourism may have been first used, José Ignacio de Arriaga observes that “tourism in its first period was considered as a sport or rather automobile touring, cycling, camping, , was regarded as a synthesis of excursion and yachting.


Pro. Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as “the sum total of events and relations arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not associated with any earning activity”. “

According to the Oxford dictionary, tourism is basically ‘pleasure travel’. It involves judicious use of time and money.

In ancient times sporadic travel by nomads has now become the world’s most flourishing industry i.e. tourism. Early humans traveled mainly out of compulsion to meet their biological needs. The emergence of various empires in later eras led to voyages for political business and religious purposes. In olden times traveling was difficult due to lack of proper transport facilities, safety and comfort along the route. Time and cost were other major constraints. Travels for religious purposes became less organized. The development of roadside inns, taverns and dharamshalas opened the way for business trips, political trips and travel for knowledge.





  Features of tourism:


1) Tourism involves movement of people and goods. The tourism industry is essentially a dynamic one. It is susceptible to subjective considerations such as the opinions and attitudes and likes and dislikes of its customers. Political unrest and economic instability can hurt it due to inflation and currency fluctuations. The tourism industry must be prepared to show greater sensitivity and willingness to adjust to new circumstances than in the past.


2) The various industries involved in the tourism industry are mainly concerned with ‘people’. In fact one of the most important motivations in generating international travel is to ‘meet other people’ or ‘see how other people live’. Tourism can bring benefits other than the more obvious and direct economic benefits of increasing national income, contributing to the balance of payments. and providing employment opportunities. are worth considering

Social benefits in contacts made through visitors developing new tastes and becoming interested in new activities.


3) In a tourist trade, the consumer needs to move (flow) to the product (stock). It helps in the sale of a product which can never be exported.

could be taken, e. Yes. A view of the Taj Mahal, landscape of an area, architectural museums and monuments.


4) Tourism being a service industry, its product is perishable.


5) Tourism thrives on natural values. But the number of such natural values is fixed and constant. This hinders the development of tourism.


6) The spread of tourism in the area of population among the low income group has necessitated a change in marketing strategy and education of modern management techniques for improving efficiency and optimum utilization of infrastructure so as to reduce tourist expenditure. least. Tourist attractions should be presented in such a way that a group of tourists can enjoy them collectively. Moreover, they should be within the reach of a common man.


7) A few decades back, tourism was limited to the rich and adventurous. It was considered a luxury. Since the early 1950s, it has developed into a form of mass emigration, comparable to the movement of the entire population of a large country.


8) The tourism industry is highly susceptible to ‘seasonality’. It is governed both by the climatic conditions prevailing in the home country of the tourist and those prevailing in the country receiving the tourist.


9) The tourism industry is primarily a service industry and a large proportion of those engaged in this activity find employment in tertiary business.


10) The tourism industry is marked by widely varying economic performance; Tourism is dependent on such a diverse range of activities that a situation may arise “where weak links in the chain of services and facilities adversely affect the progress of an otherwise healthy sector of the industry.”


11) Tourism is a complex industry. it’s a mix of sev

12) From a strictly monetary point of view tourism is largely unprofitable. There is no intention to take up employment and no idea for business or vocation.


13) The above complexity arises from the movement of people to different destinations and their stay in these destinations. Thus in the former case, there is a dynamic element travel and in the latter case there is a static element – stay. Again, the movement of people is temporary and short-lived in character.


14) Tourism is a multifaceted activity. There are many more diverse activities that make their own distinct and individual contribution. These activities, though distinct, are interdependent, requiring cooperative efforts and common policies.








  development of tourism



Tourism is on the rise due to a number of economic, cultural and technological factors. Prominent among them are –

  1. a) Increased leave – In most countries of the world, however, it is now up to two to three weeks a year. This has led to widespread leisure travel.
  2. b) Industrial Development – Development as well as pollution and overcrowding in cities has led people to search for sun sand and pure mountain air during annual vacations.
  3. c) Cultural Education – The spread of education around the world has created a natural curiosity among people to travel and find out how others live and work.
  4. d) Standard of living – Rapid economic growth has raised the standard of living in a handful of high-income developed countries. A part of this income is now spent on traveling for pleasure.




  The motivation behind tourism or why people travel


Throughout history, the motivations for most travel have been fairly clear—religion, economic gain, war, migration, migration. What is left is travel for pleasure, the most common form of travel in the modern world. The following can be listed as motivations for travel:-

1) To see how people live, work and play in other countries.


2) To enjoy the natural beauty and cultural sites.


3) To gain a better understanding of what is going on elsewhere.


4) To get away from the routine of life.


5) To participate in special events/festivals/cultural celebrations


6) Visiting the places from where one’s family came.


7) To have a good time away from home.


8) Visiting places where one’s family or friends used to live in the past.


9) Having a romantic or exotic experience.


10) To avoid unpleasant weather, for example cold winter or very hot summer.

11) To enjoy the sunny, dry climate or go for a swim at the beach. In other words, to improve health.

12) Participating in sports such as swimming, skiing, fishing or sailing.


13) Copying what your friends have already done.


14) To brag in front of your friends about what they have not been able to do.


15) Adventure into new areas with new people.


16) Going to places where living is less expensive than at home.


17) Take part in history by visiting ancient temples, monuments or historical sites.



Tourism and Development:



The word ‘tourism’ did not appear in the English language until the 19th century, but it is now the world’s most flourishing industry and tourism as a contributor to the global economy has no equal. The explosive growth of the tourism industry has created a demand for new professionals committed to professional careers in the industry.

Across the developing world, communities are trying to embrace tourism as a booming business, resulting in economic growth. Directly and indirectly, travel and tourism activities account for some of the dollars

in 2000

3.6 trillion in economic activity, or about 11% of gross world product. Since 1950, the number of international tourist arrivals has increased approximately 28-fold to approximately 698 million. These figures are expected to double again by 2020, for an estimated 1.6 billion arrivals.

Internationally, there is increasing demand to travel to Asia, Africa and elsewhere in the developing world rather than Europe and North America.

Tourism encourages investment, generates foreign exchange earnings and miscellaneous income. Developing countries may have a trade surplus.

Industrialized countries are at the top in terms of gross income. Europe is, not surprisingly, the top earner of tourism receipts worldwide, followed by the Americas and Asia.

The tourism trade is a major industry in European countries and North America. It employs a large number of people providing accommodation, boarding, catering, transport, entertainment and other service industries.

Tourism represents a rapidly growing share of world trade. In 1999 – international tourist spending abroad accounted for about 8% of world exports of goods and services, surpassing trade in food, clothing and the like.

Nd Chem. Tourism is also the fastest growing export in the services sector, representing over 40% of services exports worldwide. According to the World Trade Organisation, it ranks among the top five export categories for 83% of countries and is a major source of foreign exchange earnings for at least 38% of them.

Tourism drives the revenue of hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, tour operations and transportation services. tourism encourages expansion into other


Economic sectors such as agriculture and construction, creating new markets and generating employment or income. Directly or indirectly, tourism activities also supported an estimated 200 million jobs in 2000, representing 8% of total world employment – one in every 12 jobs.

Tourism has become one of the most important business activities of man. It has provided a major source of foreign exchange earnings in West-European countries, USA, Canada and some tropical islands. Tourism plays an important role in the country’s balance of payments position. This is because, whenever tourists visit a particular country, they need some facilities like stay, food, transport etc. For using such services they have to pay foreign currency in the country of travel. Apart from this, tourists also buy goods of local expertise and take them back to their countries. Thus in tourism the goods of one country are taken to other countries without its actual export. And so, tourism equates to invisible trade. Additionally, the country earns valuable foreign exchange without depleting its natural resources.

In many developing countries, earning foreign exchange is rare, however, such countries can also earn foreign exchange by developing their tourism. Thus tourism can provide an effective means of bringing economic development in poor countries.

Tourism needs and promotes infrastructural development which leads to socio-economic changes and benefits. The existing infrastructure has been improved to attract tourists. It also provides more and better facilities to the local residents. This can also lead to regional development and development of local handicraft industries.

The employment effects of tourism are mixed. As a service industry, tourism has great potential to generate employment and income for disadvantaged groups such as the poor and women. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, approximately 65% of the jobs created by tourism annually are found in developing countries. Not surprisingly, tourism employs 48 million and 18 million people in heavily populated countries such as China and India, respectively. But it has the highest share of total jobs in small island nations such as the Bahamas, Maldives and St. Lucia, where more than 45% of jobs are related to tourism.

There are jobs in resorts, restaurants, travel agencies and tour companies, as well as in tourism-related sectors such as construction and agriculture. But when most of the agricultural laborers are engaged in this business, it affects the local economy.


Tourism brings together people of different nationalities and cultures. The exchange of cultural ideas, fashions, styles has a profound effect on the native culture, e.g. Fishing villages in Spain have turned into tourist resorts. Tourism helps to build healthy relationships between human communities and break down prejudices and conflicts. Trade fairs invite tourists and thus promote trade. Cultural fairs and festivals – Indian festivals in France, U.S.A., Soviet Union, Japan, Russian festivals in India – have brought huge benefits to all. Tourism is now gaining increasing importance in every country.

Tourism has diverse effects on local cultures. On the one hand, it can increase national respect for minorities and indigenous groups, helping to maintain or survive languages, religious traditions and other practices that might otherwise be lost. For example, in Bali, Indonesia, tourist demand for dance and other arts has spurred an artistic revival – even though many dancers

They perform in hotels instead of traditional venues and temples. The growing interest in alternative medicine around the world has also inspired a resurgence of shamanism in Peru.

Tourism has brought about demographic changes. The mountainous, less productive and marginal areas of human existence have been saved from economic disaster and depopulation through the development of tourism,

  1. Nepal, Alps etc.


The high number of tourists as well as the facilities built to accommodate them have strained ecosystems in many places. Too much energy, water and other resources are used for tourist transport, hotels and other developments, often at the expense of local users. There is a need to protect the local environment and avoid pollution. Traditional tourism uses resources irresponsibly, produces waste and threatens ecosystems.

Government organizations, international organizations, non-governmental groups all need to be involved in sustainability



Capacity building efforts at all levels.

Many hotels, tour operators and other tourism businesses are already taking steps to incorporate environmental and social sustainability measures into daily operations, including reducing resource use and improving waste treatment and management.

Governments can impose a variety of restrictions on when hotels or other agencies use local resources, and prevent further construction at particularly sensitive sites. They may also work with civic groups and other non-governmental organizations to help local communities take charge of their own futures.


To provide them with the necessary training and resources to oversee and manage local tourism development.

Tourists can also follow rules of behavior and thus protect the local ecosystem.

To encourage tourism investment, many countries offer economic incentives such as tax and import duty exemptions, subsidies and guarantees, along with incentive support. By attracting tourist dollars, they can generate the foreign exchange needed to diversify their economies and reduce heavy debt burdens, pay for imports, strengthen domestic infrastructure, and promote social services such as education and health care. hope to attract.

World Bank and IMF gave full cooperation. They support investment in tourism infrastructure and training, site development and heritage as part of a new institutional focus on poverty alleviation and cultural preservation.

Governments can encourage the development of domestically owned tourism enterprises, but since they are under global pressure, they must provide easy access to tourism assets to outside investors – including large international hotel chains, airlines and tour operators.

Conflicts over tourism ownership are likely to intensify as countries implement new international trade and investment policies that give more advantages to foreign investors. To facilitate foreign investors, the local government had to stop subsidizing and protecting local businesses in order to help foreign businesses set up.





Environmental Effects of Tourism (Adverse Effects of Tourism)



As air travel becomes cheaper, there are growing concerns about the environmental impact. It has many negative effects which are as follows:-

  1. a) Transportation facilities like jets are the most polluting form. Air travel has been especially important in the developing world.


  1. b) Air transport is one of the world’s fastest growing sources of emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases responsible for global climate change.


  1. c) Natural and rural landscapes are increasingly being converted into roads, airports, hotels, gift shops, parking lots and other facilities, leading to the degradation of the sites that attract tourists in the first place.


  1. d) Rivers are also polluted with detergents, uncollected garbage and human waste from existing hotels – a result of poor regional tourism planning.


  1. e) Hotels and their guests use enormous amounts of energy to heat and cool rooms, light hallways, and cook food, as well as water for washing clothes, filling swimming pools, and watering golf courses. Sometimes they use coal for heating.


  1. f) Heavy consumption of water by tourists may also lead to depletion of water supply in the area.


  1. g) In addition to consuming water energy and other resources, tourism produces a large amount of waste. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) estimates that the average tourist produces about one kilo of solid waste and litter per day. Improperly disposed of, this waste can harm surrounding ecosystems, contaminate water resources and harm wildlife.


  1. h) Cruise ships also discharge their waste into the water.


  1. I) Popular natural sites are also getting affected. Plastic water bottles, soda cans and gum wrappers litter the trails of Taman Negara, Malaysia’s largest natural park, where tourism has more than tripled in the past 10 years.


  1. j) Around the world, whale watching boats continuously follow whales and dolphins and even the animal’s dietary and social movements

Encourages stone pelting to change the method.


  1. k) Popular recreational activities such as scuba diving, snorkelling or sport fishing in coastal areas are causing damage to coral reefs or other marine resources – although this destruction is minor when compared to the effects of coral bleaching on fishing and ocean pollution.


  1. l) In mountainous areas, resorts and related infrastructure can disrupt animal migration, divert water from streams, create waste that is difficult to dispose of at high altitudes and erode hillsides triggering landslides gives.








  recent trends :



The growing importance of tourism’s impact on the environment prompted the Executive Council of the WTO to create a separate Environment Committee, whose first meeting was held in Madrid (Spain) in May 1981, to discuss “tourism development and its impact on the environment”. Was focused on the topic.



Positive results in tourism development can be achieved through effective programs, as well as mismanagement and damage to the environment can be achieved through efficient landscape planning. Potential negative impacts can be checked, ecological degradation can be prevented in areas with good environmental quality, as well as saturation and congestion of urban areas with declining environmental quality can be prevented.

Various positive steps have been suggested by the World Trade Organization for the protection of the natural environment: –

1) Creation of national parks and biospheric reserves.


2) Alignment of roads to reduce environmental disturbance.


3) Restriction on encroachment in rural areas of the city through effective legislation.

In addition, the Environment Committee of the World Tourism Organization (WTO) has adopted the following goals:-

  1. a) To identify a set of closely related tourism environmental issues including: carrying capacity, ecosystem sustainability, protection of cultural elements and the built environment.
  2. b) To organize the information of the field.


  1. c) To define ways of involving tourists in the conservation of the environment.
  2. d) To develop guidelines for assessment, control and minimization of adverse environmental impacts in tourism activities.




alternative tourism



Alternative tourism is broadly defined as forms of tourism that are consistent with natural, social and community values and that allow both hosts and guests to enjoy positive and meaningful interactions and shared experiences.

Alternative tourism is a process that promotes an appropriate form of travel among members of different communities. It seeks to achieve mutual understanding, solidarity and equality among the participants. The emphasis here has been on facilitating and improving contact between hosts and guests, particularly through the organization of well-crafted special interest tours rather than the actual development of facilities. The emphasis on social interaction appears to be in response to some overabundance of mass tourism and sex tourism in particular, especially in Asia, where most of the relevant conferences were held.

‘Soft tourism’, a form of alternative tourism, has gained some popularity since the early 1980s, particularly in the German-speaking Alpine regions of Bavaria, Austria and Switzerland. A distinctive feature of ‘soft tourism’ is the weight given to environmental concerns and the promotion of ecologically sensitive development policies. Soft tourism refers to a form of tourism that leads to mutual understanding between the local population and their guests, that does not threaten the cultural identity of the host region and that seeks to take care of the environment as best as possible. ‘Soft tourists’ prefer to use infrastructure earmarked for the local population and do not accept substantial tourist facilities that are harmful to the environment.

Alternative tourism is applied to tourism that does not harm the environment, is ecologically healthy and avoids many of the negative effects of mass tourism development.

Alternative tourism is thought to involve smaller developments or attractions for tourists that are set up and organized by villages or communities. These are seen as having less negative impact, social or cultural and a better chance of being acceptable to local people than mass tourism.

Some types of tourism are called alternative because they are not ‘exploitative’ of local people, as profits flow to local residents or poorer communities in general. Traditional tourism demands large-scale organization and resources that are usually not available locally or even


country ; As a result its rewards flow away to distant cities or foreign countries.

Alternative tourism emphasizes cultural sustainability. Tourism that does not harm the culture of the host community is often called alternative, even more alternative tourism actively encourages respect for the cultural realities experienced by tourists through education and organized ‘encounters’. can try.

Holden’s Anu

In essence, alternative tourism can be defined as a process that promotes a form of travel that does not allow the exploitation of natural resources by tourists. It seeks to achieve mutual understanding, solidarity, equality and trust between host and guest members.


Tourism as a concept in daily life is a modern phenomenon. The word ‘tourism’ did not appear in the English language until the 19th century, but it is now the world’s most flourishing industry and a contributor to the global economy without equal.

Tourism contributes to the development of understanding among people, provides employment, generates foreign exchange and raises the standard of living. For many countries, it is the only form of maintaining them.

r economy. Tourism is related to entertainment, travel for holidays and travel. Tourism is an activity that occurs when people travel to another place for leisure or business and stay for at least 24 hours. Tourism is an activity of multifaceted, multidimensional nature involving multiple lives and mixed economic activities. It can be thought of as a whole series of individuals acting in a particular way to generate a travel experience.

New Sociology

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