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New Sociology

Concept: It is difficult to give a definite definition of a city. Broadly, it can be said that a city is a community of social differences where secondary groups, controls, industry and trade, dense population and impersonal relations predominate. So we can say that a city is a community that has its own

There are some specialities. There are many types of industries, trade and commerce in the cities. For this reason, people of every caste, race, religion and class from different parts of the country and abroad come and settle in the city. That’s why the population of the city is not only high, but there are variations in that population instead of uniformity. Before understanding the process of urbanization in India and its role in social change, it is necessary to understand the meaning of urbanization. can be said in general terms



Processes of social change that urbanization is the process by which the area of the cities and the urban lifestyle expands. It is clear that in order to understand urbanization it is necessary to first understand the meaning of city. There is no definition of a city which is universally accepted and common, it is a difficult task. This can be understood on the basis of some of its characteristics


  1. over population
  2. Maximum population density
  3. Predominance of secondary group
  4. People associated with different business
  5. Individuality
  6. Self-centeredness
  7. Showiness
  8. Complexity.


Therefore, various scholars have clarified the concept of urbanization on the basis of the above mentioned characteristics of the city. According to E.E. Bergell, “Urbanization is the name of the process of converting rural areas into urban areas. “(We call urbanization the process of transforming rural into urban areas • Bergell, Urban Sociology. Pl.) According to Thompson (W. Ihompson) “Urbanization is the process by which the people of an agricultural community gradually They start changing into people whose activities are related to industry, trade, commerce and government offices. ,


According to M.N. Srinivas: “Urbanization does not mean only more population in a limited area but also the process by which the social and economic relations of the people begin to change.” The concept of urbanization can be understood with the help of some of its salient features:


  1..Urbanization does not only mean the population moving from villages to cities or the effect of urban attitudes being more, but also when the urban characteristics are included in the usage habits and ways of behavior of the people even without the change of place. This condition explains urbanization. is a special way of life that spreads to areas outside the city


  1. Under this process, it explains the increasing influence of urban businesses in place of agriculture and rural industries.


  1. It is a two way process. On the one hand, this process explains the condition of rural areas turning into cities or the expansion of cities, and on the other hand, it is related to a condition in which the influence of attitudes found in the city starts increasing.


  1. The process of urbanization is closely related to industrialization. As industrialization increases in a society, urbanization also expands.


  1. Under this process there is decrease in rural population and increase in urban population.


  1. This process explains the formalization of social relations. This means that the process of urbanization increases individualism by encouraging self-interest based relationships between different individuals and groups. Growth of cities in India: About the origin and growth of cities (1) Marg Rhett Moore (2) Praveen and Thomas No one fixed story can be made nor can it be fixed on a date or session. can go . Man has built cities only to fulfill his many needs. Robert Beerstedt has written in his work “The Social Order” that the origin of cities must have been seven or eight thousand years ago.


The Indus Valley Civilization in India presents an example of an advanced urban civilization 4000 years before Christ. In the origin of the city, not one factor but many factors are included. Factors such as industrialization, economic attraction, rural-urban migration, urbanization, social, economic etc. contribute fully to the emergence of a city. The political factor is very important in the origin and development of cities. Cities have always been centers of political activities. The origin and development of cities in India can be studied broadly by dividing them into three parts.


  1. Ancient City
  2. Medieval Town
  3. Modern City




Ancient Town :


The development of cities in India also generally happened like the development of normal cities. But still, there is ample evidence that cities have existed in India since time immemorial. Adequate description of cities in India is available in the epics and Puranas. Urban civilization existed in India 8000 years ago and this can be confirmed on the basis of remains found in the excavation of Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Many cities are mentioned in the Gupta period. But the ancient cities were not as big as the modern cities. There were many cities in India in ancient times like: Kashi, Ayodhya, Takshashila, Pataliputra, Prayag, Ujjain etc.


  1. Medieval Cities: The development of cities in India during the medieval period was mainly due to the kings and many courtiers. In the medieval period, various kings invaded India and built large buildings using their architecture at the conquered places.

He died and started living there. Therefore, army, courtiers, ministers etc. also started living with them, due to which the cities started developing automatically. For example: Firozabad was founded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Sikandar Lodi established the city of Agra, Daulatabad was also established. In the medieval period, Sher Shah established the city of Sasaram etc. The development of cities was in its qualitative stage during the medieval period. Sociologist Lewis Mumford has written that “The role of feudal lords has been important behind the origin and development of medieval cities. ,


  1. Modern Cities: In the medieval period, the growth and development of these cities was dominated by the feudal lords. But in the last twenty-five years of this period, the dominance of the socialists in the urban centers started to wane. Due to industrial revolution, the process of urbanization started and new cities started developing rapidly. It can be considered that the modern era is the era of cities. In 1781, an area with a population of more than 5000 was considered a city in India. But today the city is calculated on the basis of 1000/sq.m. In the modern era, due to the solution of the problems of modern education, employment etc., the city has also started emerging. Now the support of day-less, famine, backward etc. has now become a city. Therefore, in the modern era, cities are increasing rapidly.




Factors increasing the rate of urbanization: The process of urbanization is not new in India, this process has been going on since ancient times. Big cities came up here during the Mahajanapada period and also during the Buddhist period. British



During this period, the development of cities became very rapid and favorable geographical conditions, religious beliefs, establishment of military camps and facilities for transport contributed more to the development of cities. After independence, population growth, industrialization, means of transport and communication, educational institutions, political conditions, civil facilities and economic security are the main conditions which contributed to increase urbanization. These factors can be understood on the following points:


  1. Industrialization: As industrial development took place in India, as a result, production increased in large quantities by machines in various areas, village cottage industries and handicrafts started getting destroyed. Unemployment started increasing among the people engaged in these industries and handicrafts. More workers were needed in urban industries. As a result, a large part of the rural population started working as laborers in urban industries. Due to this the urban population also started increasing.


  1. Favorable Geographical Conditions: Favorable geographical position can be an important factor in the origin and development of cities. Availability of raw materials nearby, favorable climate for special industries, etc. can be very helpful in the development of all cities. The main reason for the progressive development of Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Calcutta, Mumbai etc. is their favorable geographical location.


  1. Establishment of the capital: The importance of any place increases when it is the capital. Many people related to state work have to come and settle there. Government officers, members of Lok Sabha etc., soldiers etc. gather there. The population increases and to meet the needs of that increasing population, it becomes necessary to develop business and other service work. The result of all this is the day-to-day development of the city. Delhi, Mumbai, Chandigarh etc. are prime examples of this.


  1. Military Cantonment: Similarly, where a military cantonment is established, that city also develops. Along with some soldiers, other members of their families also come and to meet the various needs related to these, industry, trade and commerce also increases and this type of development takes place, Jammu, Ambala, Dehradun, Sikandarabad etc. are its best. There are examples.


  1. Technological Development: Along with technological advancement, there is advancement in the means of transport and communication, due to which, not only in the country, but by importing raw materials or latest machines from any part of the world, industrial businesses can be developed and maintained. Things can be transported to the national international market. Due to technological development, today the city can be built even after clearing the forest. As we become familiar with the better machines, the industries also progress in the same way. When more and more machines are used in agriculture, then on one hand time is saved and on the other hand, minimum number of people are required in agriculture. As a result, many people get a break from agriculture and the need of labor in the cities is fulfilled. Due to the second technological development, there is a surprising progress in the production of agriculture and not only the food items necessary for the development of the cities, the goods required for many basic industries, textile, jute, sugar, vanaspati ghee and oil etc. are easily available.


  1. Population growth: Before independence in India, only 15% of the country’s population lived in cities. Despite poverty, the life of the villagers was self-sufficient. After independence, when the population started increasing rapidly in our country, the division of farms in the villages started increasing. As a result, a large part of the rural population started moving towards the cities to get employment.
  2. Political Conditions: What is the role of the present political conditions in promoting the process of urbanization?

It is an important place. In a democratic system, people get more opportunities for development in those cities which are centers of political activities. This is the reason why the process of urbanization is fastest in Delhi today. The cities in which the capitals of various states are located are also witnessing rapid urbanization as compared to other cities.


  1. Increase in the means of transport and communication: After independence, roads were built to connect all the villages with the cities in India. New development programs were started through five year plans. Here, as the means of transport and communication increased, all the urban and rural areas started connecting with each other. Due to the use of advanced equipment and seeds in agriculture, agricultural production increased, but the dependence of the villagers on the cities increased. The contact of the villagers with the cities also increased to sell the crops. Due to the facilities of transport, it became more profitable to sell the agricultural produce in the cities.


  1. Education System: The youth getting education in rural areas generally do not like to do traditional business like farming. Their effort is to make a living by working in offices, factories or private establishments located in the city. After getting education in the city, the village life seems unsuitable to them. As a result of this attitude also the process of urbanization is encouraged.


  1. Facilities: Another reason for increasing urbanization in our country is the special civic facilities available in the cities. Due to more facilities of education, water, electricity, health and security in cities, they become the center of attraction for people living in villages and towns. Clearly keeping all these multidimensional aspects in mind, Fingsley Davis has concluded that the increase in urbanization can be understood on the basis of all conditions.



  1. Socio-economic changes as a result of urbanization: Even today India is basically a country of villages. But today the process of urbanization is also rapidly expanding its influence. The process of urbanization has brought changes in our entire social structure and our social, economic, mental, political, cultural, religious and moral life is taking a new turn. These effects of urbanization are healthy as well as unhealthy. We will briefly discuss both those types of effects here.


  1. Wider area of socio-cultural contacts: One notable effect of urbanization is that as a result the area of social-cultural contacts automatically increases. It is easy to establish contact with other provinces or countries through newspapers, magazines, books, radio, only network, internet, telephone, mobile etc. of cities. All these elements prove helpful in expanding the area of socio-cultural contact. ,
  2. More facilities related to education and training: There is more inclination towards giving proper education to their children, so along with urbanization the facilities related to education and training also expand. In some cities, facilities related to education and training contribute a lot in encouraging the process of urbanization. By doing computer and many other technical courses, the chances of employment in the cities increase. Due to these facilities the importance of the city increases day by day.


  1. Expansion of trade and commerce: Along with the development of cities, the progress of trade and commerce also takes place because along with urbanization, the population increases and with the increase in population, the needs increase and trade and commerce take place to meet those needs. expansion becomes necessary. Therefore, along with urbanization, new markets, haats, shopping centers, cinemas, restaurants etc. also emerge.


  1. Increase in facilities of transport and communication Along with the development of the city, the facilities of transport and communication also increase because without this the life of the residents cannot be comfortable. Civil conditions demand it. That the means of transport and communication should be expanded. Therefore, along with the development of the city, post office, telephone, railway station, courier service, internet, cyber cafe etc. also develop and bus and taxi service, auto rickshaw etc. are available inside the city. All these facilities, which can be expensive, soon become essential parts of civic life.


  1. Political Education: Along with the process of urbanization, the activity of political parties also increases. In fact, the city is the arena of political parties and they not only try very hard to spread their ideals and principles, but one political party also tries its best to humiliate the other party. As a result, the opportunity to learn political maneuvers is never available in the villages as much as in the cities, this is also possible because the means of transport and communication in the city are at an advanced level and their books, magazines, newspapers, radio, It is possible for us to participate in international political life or at least get information about it through T.V. posters, banners, speakers etc. It proves helpful in bringing political education to a practical level.


  1. Social Tolerance: A Mention of Urbanization

The net effect is that social tolerance flourishes to a great extent among the city dwellers. The reason for this is also clear. Along with urbanization, people from different religions, sects, castes, classes, races, provinces and countries come and settle, and everyone has the opportunity to meet and see each other more closely. is received . This kind of contact develops tolerance towards each other.


  1. Change in family values and structure: Along with urbanization, there is a rapid change in family values and structure, children in cities today are not fully respecting their parents, they consider their stubbornness as paramount. , Marry the girl or boy of your choice, get to see romance in the name of going to college. The affair of working girls has become a common thing in the cities. Increase in the number of love marriages and increase in the number of divorces are also seen more in the cities. The media and communication revolution has greatly affected the He longs to be like his role model. He does not pay attention to family duties. After marriage, the girl motivates her husband to live in a separate house, increasing the number of single families and disintegration of joint families is continuously increasing here.


  1. Development of Slums: Along with urbanization, when the process of industrialization also goes on, the population of the city goes on increasing at a very fast pace. But new houses are not constructed in the same proportion as the population increases. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is the development of slums.


  1. Changes in social values and relations: Individualistic ideals flourish along with urbanization. Due to the importance of money and personal qualities in the cities, every person only cares about himself and spends his life to protect his interests. His effort is to develop his own personality and to collect more and more money because his social prestige depends on these. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is to sacrifice community interest at the altar of personal interest. In the same way, with urbanization, personal relations turn into impersonal social relations. In big cities like Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, there is complete lack of personal relations among people living in the same building of eight-ten floors. Similarly, discrimination on the basis of caste, feeling of untouchability etc. weakens along with urbanization and the social values related to them change. The phenomenon of social distance can be said to be a remarkable effect of urbanization.


  1. Commercialization of entertainment: Another notable effect of urbanization is commercialization of means of entertainment ie cinema, theatre, disco club, sports, only network, mobile, internet etc. All means of entertainment are organized by business organizations. That’s why modesty or healthy effect is not taken care of as much as they are made more attractive to the audience and they are conscious of taking money from them.


  1. Accident, disease and filth: Accidents are more in cities. More pollution causes more diseases. Different diseases related to different industries flourish. Not only this, due to the dense population in the cities, the filth is also high. Due to filth also many types of diseases surround the residents of the city. Even after trying a lot, accidents, diseases and filth caused by urbanization cannot be avoided.


  1. Uncertainty in community life: This is one of the major problems of the cities and the problem is that due to this uncertainty, the feeling of community or ‘we’ does not flourish in the cities, due to which uniformity does not flourish in the life of the city. Some sleep here at night and some during the day, some are employed today and are idle tomorrow. This uncertainty is there at every step and every moment. Whether the person who left the house in the morning returned home in the evening, or not, –

There is no certainty about this either. This uncertainty gives birth to elements that disintegrate community life.


  1. Social disorganization: Uncertainty or more variability in the status and actions of individuals and institutions generates social disorganization, the pace of social change is also faster in cities, due to which social disorganization arises. Bank failure, rebellion, revolution or war are also more likely to break out in cities, due to which a situation of social disintegration arises, which proves fatal for a healthy social life.


  1. Family disintegration: In cities, the mutual relations between the members of the families are not very close because most of the members of the house are either separated from each other for studies, writing, getting training, getting jobs, getting entertainment etc. More time has to be spent outside the family, due to which the family members have little control over each other, which often proves helpful in disintegrating the family.


  1. Personal disintegration: This is another notable problem of the cities. The following five forms of personal disintegration are seen in cities, each of which is a serious problem in itself.


  (a) Crime and juvenile delinquency: Urban poverty, housing problem, unemployment,

Discrimination in the ratio of men and women, drug addiction, business entertainment, business cycle, competition, loose control of family, prostitution, child labor etc. are such important factors due to which crime and child crime are seen more in cities.


(b) Suicide: Poverty in cities, unemployment, unhappy family life, severe disappointment in life after failure in competition, failure in romance or love, failure in business, etc. are more likely and in any of these conditions a person One can get trapped in such an intolerable mental confusion from which he chooses to commit suicide to get rid of it. This is the reason why there are more suicides in cities than in villages.


  (c) Prostitution: There are more working classes in the cities, who are forced to live alone without living with their wives and children due to the problem of houses and inflation in the cities. For them brothel is a good place of entertainment. Poverty and unemployment found in the cities also force many women into prostitution.


(d) Drug abuse: Drinking etc. is a manifestation of personal disintegration. This problem is particularly acute in cities. The extreme form of this problem is seen when drinking is accepted as a symbol of social status and common courtesy in the big parties, ‘diners’ in the cities where the ‘gentlemen’ of the society gather. . There is no dearth of such people in the cities who have failed in their life. This becomes more clear to us from the crowd at the liquor shops.


  (e) Begging: In cities, especially in religiously important cities, people beg not only fed up with the poverty, hunger and unemployment of the cities, but also give a commercial form to begging. In big cities there are owners of beggars whose work


  Social Change in India: Condition and Direction Making beggars, teaching beggars how to beg, their bodies have to be mutilated or dilapidated in such a way that people automatically feel compassion.


, Other socio-economic effects of urbanization: Development of capitalist economy, unequal distribution of national wealth, economic crisis, unemployment, industrial conflicts, mental anxiety and disease, struggle and competition, increase in social mobility, division of labor and specialisation, ‘we’ The effect of the feeling of belonging, etc. are other effects of urbanization which are seen in India.

New Sociology

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