Spread the love


  Industrialization can be both a cause and a result of urbanization. It is often seen that where industries flourish and machines are produced in big mills and factories, the process of urbanization is active there, many cities in India have developed in the same way. In this sense, industrialization is the cause of urbanization. But it also happens that due to some other reason, the process of urbanization is activated first and now when the community takes the full form of the city, there is a gradual industrialization of the industry.


Concept: The process of execution of production works on a large scale by machines and development of industries in one place is called industrialization. Some authors say that “Industrialization refers to the introduction of large-scale new industries and the conversion of small industries into large-scale industries. ,


In real sense, industrialization is a process of development of industries on a large scale. Wilbert Moore (W.E.Moore in his book Social Change, P-91) defines industrialization as follows: “Industrialization is the term used to describe the widespread use of non-living sources of power in the production of economic goods and services (Industrialization in its strict sense of the term, entails the extensive use of inanimate sources of power in the production of economic goods and services.) Thus, according to Wilbert Moore, the main goal of the process of industrialization is to maximize profits. Also, industrialization is related to both goods and services.



  Reasons for industrialization in India: Major five-year plans have contributed to the reasons for industrialization in an agricultural country like India. During the Second Five Year Plan (1956-61), industrialization began on a large scale. Also, many other reasons can be understood from the following points


  1. New technology of production: The rate of industrialization has increased considerably due to the invention of new methods of production. Green revolution became possible only because of new hybrid seeds and mechanization in agriculture. The invention of new textile mills gave a new shape to industrialization. Today, in the information revolution, with the advent of computer, internet, it is taking only a few seconds to send and receive information anywhere in the world.


  1. Natural resources: The biggest requirement of industrialization is natural resources. If there is no abundance of natural resources in the country, then the pace of industrialization will stop,


Will go India has huge reserves of mineral wealth like iron, coal, mica etc. Petroleum is also satisfactory. India is one of the richest countries in the world in the field of water power. There are forests here where herbs are available for various diseases of the world.


  1. Means of Transport : Industrialization

The means of transport cannot be neglected in the process of One has to accept the importance of means of transport in transporting raw materials, machines and laborers to the production centers, in taking finished goods to the markets of the country and abroad and in maintaining relations related to industry and business. Therefore, there is no importance of industrialization without traffic.


  1. Abundance of labor force: Compared to developed countries, our country has more labor force. There are crores of landless laborers in the village who remain unemployed for most of the year, they get ready to work as laborers in industries for low wages. The cost of industrial production done by them is also less. This is such a condition as a result of which industrial development was easily possible here.


  1. Economic Policies: One of the main reasons for industrialization in our country is more and more industrial policies of the government. A mixed economy was encouraged in India from the time of independence. In this, basic industries were developed in the public sector, while the development of other industries was left to the private sector. Many such laws were made for labor welfare and labor protection so that exploitation of laborers can be prevented and their work efficiency can be increased. This condition also proved helpful in the development of industrialization.


  1. International Competition: Another reason for the growth of industrialization in India is the participation of India in international competition. In the present era, any country can strengthen its economic position only when it can import goods from other countries as well as produce various goods in large quantities and export them to other countries. Our economy becomes strong only by the balance of import and export. After independence, as India started participating in international competition in the economic field, industrialization increased here.


  1. Educational Institutions: Educational institutions have a very important role in the causes of industrialization in India. There are crores of students who are pursuing various courses related to modern production through educational institutions. Therefore, along with the above conditions, new inventions, process of urbanization and expansion of banking facility and service sector etc. are the auxiliary conditions which contributed significantly to the development of industrialization.


Socio-economic changes as a result of industrialization: Even today India is basically a country of villages. But today the process of industrialization is also rapidly expanding its influence. The process of industrialization has brought changes in our entire social structure and our social, economic, mental, political, cultural, religious and moral life is taking a new turn. These effects of industrialization are healthy as well as unhealthy. We will now briefly discuss both types of effects here. ,


  1. Wide range of socio-cultural contacts: One notable effect of industrialization is that as a result of this, the range of socio-cultural contacts automatically increases. It is easy to establish contact with other provinces or countries through newspapers-magazines, books, radio, only network, internet, telephone, mobile etc. of cities. All these elements prove to be helpful in expanding the area of socio-cultural contact.


  1. More facilities related to education and training: There is more inclination towards giving proper education to their children, so along with industrialization, facilities related to education and training also expand. In some cities, facilities related to education and training are also expanded to encourage the process of urbanization. In some cities, education and training related facilities contribute more in encouraging the process of urbanization. By doing computer and many other technical courses, the chances of employment in the cities increase. Due to these facilities the importance of the city increases day by day.


  1. Expansion of trade and commerce: Along with the development of cities, trade and commerce also progress in a definite way because along with industrialization, population increases and with the increase in population, the requirements increase and trade to meet those requirements. And expansion of commerce becomes necessary. Therefore, along with industrialization, new markets, haats, shop sets, cinemas, restaurants etc. also emerge.


  1. Increase in the facilities of transport and communication: Along with the development of the city, the facilities of transport and communication also spread because without it the life of the residents cannot be comfortable. Civil conditions demand it. That the means of transport and communication should be expanded. That’s why along with the development of the city post office, telephone, railway station, carrier service, intset, cyber cafe etc also keep on developing and bus and taxi service, auto rickshaw etc are available inside the city. All these facilities can be expensive and soon become an essential part of civic life.
  2. Political Education: Along with the process of industrialization, the activity of political parties also increases. In fact, the city is the arena of political parties.

Not only do they try very hard to spread their ideals and principles, but one political party also tries its best to humiliate the other party. As a result, the opportunity to learn political tactics is never available in the villages as much as in the cities. This is also possible because the means of transport and communication in the city are at an advanced level and participation in international political life through books, magazines, newspapers, radio, TV, posters, banners, speakers, etc. is less or less. At least it is possible for us to get information about him. This proves helpful in bringing political education to a practical level.

  1. Social tolerance: One notable effect of industrialization is that social tolerance flourishes in city dwellers to a considerable extent. The reason for this is also clear. Along with urbanization, people from different religions, sects, castes, classes, races, provinces and countries come and settle, and everyone has the opportunity to mix with each other and to protect each other.

One gets the opportunity to see more closely. In this type of snake, tolerance towards each other develops.


  1. Changes in family values and resources: Along with urbanization, there is a rapid change in family values and structure. Today, children in the cities are not respecting their parents completely, consider their stubbornness as paramount, marry the wood or boy of their choice, romance is seen in the name of going to college. Affair of working girls has become a common thing in the cities. Increase in the number of love marriages and increase in divorce is also seen more in the cities. The media and communication revolution has greatly influenced the youth. He aspires to be like his role model (at her Social Economic Effects of Urbanization). He does not pay attention to family duties. After marriage, the girl forces her husband to live in a separate house. Increase in the number of nuclear families and disintegration of joint families is continuously increasing here.


  1. Development of Slums: Along with industrialization, when the process of industrialization continues, the population of the city goes on increasing at a very rapid pace. But new houses are not constructed in the same proportion as the population increases. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is the development of slums.


  1. Changes in social values and relations: Along with industrialization, the individualistic ideal flourishes. Due to the importance of money and personal qualities in the cities, every person only cares about himself and spends his life to protect his interests. His effort is to develop his own individuality and to collect more and more wealth because his social prestige depends on these. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is to sacrifice community interest at the altar of personal interest. In the same way, with urbanization, personal relations turn into impersonal social relations. In big cities like Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, there is complete lack of personal relations among people living in the same building of eight-ten floors. In the same way, on the basis of caste and creed, untouchability etc. Along with urbanization, they become weak and the social values related to them change. The phenomenon of social distance can be said to be a remarkable effect of urbanization. One political party starts humiliating the other party.


  1. Commercialization of entertainment: Another notable effect of industrialization is commercialization of means of entertainment ie cinema, theatre, disco club, sports, only network, mobile, internet etc. All means of entertainment are organized by business organizations. That’s why they don’t take care of modesty or healthy effect as much as they are conscious of taking money from them by making them more and more attractive to the audience.


  1. Accident, disease and filth: Accidents are more in cities. Diseases are also more due to more pollution. Different diseases related to different industries flourish. Not only this, due to the dense population in the cities, the filth is also high. Due to filth also many types of diseases surround the residents of the city. Even after trying a million, the problems of accident, disease and filth cannot be avoided as a result of industrialization.


  1. Uncertainty in community life: This is one of the major problems of the cities and the problem is that due to this uncertainty, the sense of community or ‘we’ of the cities does not flourish. Because of which uniformity does not flourish in the life of the city. Here someone sleeps at night, someone during the day, someone is busy today, tomorrow is idle. This uncertainty is there every moment at every moment. There is no certainty whether the person who left home in the morning will return home in the evening or not. This uncertainty gives rise to elements that disintegrate community life.


  1. Social Disorganization: Uncertainty or more variability in the status and functions of individuals and institutions generates social disorganization. The pace of social change is also faster in cities, due to which social disorganization arises. There is also a high possibility of bank failure, rebellion, revolution or war breaking out in the cities.

These are the causes of social disorganization which prove to be fatal for a healthy social life.


  1. Family Disruption: In the cities, the mutual relation between the members of the families is not very close, because most of the members of the house either have separate ways to read, write, get training, get jobs, get entertainment etc. Have to spend more time outside the family. Because of this, the family members have little control over each other, which often proves helpful in disintegrating the family.


  1. Personal disintegration: This is another notable problem of cities. The following five forms of personal disorganization are seen in cities, each of which is a serious problem in itself (a) Crime and juvenile delinquency: poverty in cities, housing problem, unemployment, gender disparity, drug addiction, commercial Entertainment, business cycles, competition, loose control of the family, exist, due to which crime and juvenile delinquency are seen more in the cities. (b) Suicide: Poverty in cities, unemployment, unhappy family life, severe disappointment in relation to life after failure in competition, failure in romance or love, failure in business, etc. are more likely to demoralize one political party to another. And in any of these situations, a person can get trapped in such an intolerable mental confusion that he chooses suicide to get out of it. This is the reason why there are more suicides in cities than in villages. (c) Prostitution: There are more working classes in the cities, who are forced to live alone without living with their wives and children due to the problem of houses in the cities and inflation. For this brothel is a good place of entertainment. Poverty and unemployment found in the cities also force many women to prostitution. (d) Drug abuse: Alcoholism etc. is a manifestation of personal disintegration. This problem is particularly acute in cities. The extreme form of this problem is seen when the cities

  .. is morally neutral. In India, drinking has been accepted as a symbol of social status and as a common courtesy, in large parties, ‘diners’ where high level ‘gentlemen’ of the society congregate. There is no dearth of such people in the cities who have failed in their life. This becomes more clear to us from the crowd at the liquor shops. (e) Beggary: People in the cities not only beg after being fed up with poverty, hunger and unemployment of the cities, but also give a commercial form to begging. In big cities there are owners of beggars whose work is to make beggars, to teach beggars how to beg, to mutilate or dilapidate their bodies in such a way that people automatically feel compassion. 17. Other socio-economic effects of industrialization: development of capitalist economy, unequal distribution of national wealth, economic crisis, unemployment, industrial disputes, mental anxiety and disease, conflict and competition, increase in social mobility, division of labor and specialization ‘we’ The effect of the feeling of belonging etc. are other effects of industrialization which are seen in India.

New Sociology

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.