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Concept: Westernization refers to the process of change that occurred in various aspects of Indian life, society and culture as a result of coming in contact with the western culture that the British rulers brought with them. Dr.M.N.Srinivas has written while explaining westernization, I have used the word westernization for the changes that occurred in Indian society and culture as a result of one and a half hundred years rule of the British state. And this word is indicative of the changes taking place at various levels such as technology, institutions, ideology, values etc. ( I have used the term westernization to characterize the changes brought about in Indian and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rules and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels , technology , institutions ideology and values : M. N. Srinivas . ” Social change in Modern Indian”. University of California Press, 1966. p. 47) 


Features of Westernization:


  1. A broad concept: The concept of westernization is very broad. It includes all kinds of material and non-material changes arising from the influence of the West. Explaining the views of Srinivasa in this regard, Kuppuswamy has written that westernization is mainly concerned with three areas: (a) behavioral aspect, such as: food habits, dress, manners and behavior patterns etc.; (b) knowledge-related aspects, such as: science, technology and literature etc.; (c) Aspects related to social values, such as: humanism, secularism and egalitarian ideas, the changes in all these aspects of society due to the influence of the West are related to westernization.


  1. Morally neutral: It is not necessary to have elements of morality in the process of westernization, that is, the results of westernization can be good as well as bad. Westernization in Indian society has happened only in a good direction; this is not the matter .

this process like this


  1. Culture brought by the British: The word ‘Western Country’ refers to many countries like America, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy etc. There is a huge cultural difference between them. The process of Westernization which is active in India as a factor of social change is actually the influence of that form of Western culture which the British rulers brought with them and introduced Indians to it.


  1. A Complex Process: The process of westernization involves many complex elements. This process is also related to the changes in customs, caste system, religion, family and lifestyle that have arisen as a result of scientific and technological progress in the western world. This process is also complicated because it did not affect the entire Indian society equally. The influence of westernization is more visible in the cities than in the villages and in the upper classes than in the lower classes.


  1. Conscious-Unconscious Process: Westernization is not only a conscious process but also an unconscious process. In other words, social change has taken place in India only in a conscious way through the process of westernization; It’s not like that . Perhaps we ourselves do not know when we have unintentionally adopted many western cultural elements brought by the British. They have entered our lives unconsciously and have brought about change.


  1. Lack of a fixed pattern: There is no single pattern or model of westernization. The ideal of westernization during the British rule was the influence of England. After independence, as India’s relations with Russia and America increased; The influence of these countries on our technology and social and cultural life increased. It is difficult to tell from the current changes taking place in the Indian society due to western influence, which country is this influence from England, America or Russia etc. It is clear that the process of westernization in our country is not based on the ideal of any one country.


  1. Westernization is not related to any general culture: Westernization is definitely related to the influence of western countries, but something is also found in the cultural characteristics of all western countries. There is no common culture of western country. Even after this Dr. Srinivas has accepted that the process of westernization which we talk about for the social change taking place in India, is actually related to the influence of British culture. This statement does not seem very appropriate because the changes taking place in the Indian society are the result of the combined influence of many countries of the West.


  1. Inclusion of many values: Westernization includes many such values whose nature is quite different from the traditional values of India. For example, equality, freedom, individualism, physical attractiveness, rationality and humanism are values that are considered more important in Western culture. Westernization is the name of the process of adopting these values of the West in place of traditional values.


Impact of Westernization on Indian Society: Dr.M.N.Srinivasa has detailed discussion of Westernization in his famous book Social Change in Modern India (P-47) and Yogendra Singh in his book Modernization of Indian Tradition (P-9) as well B. Kuppuswamy in his book Social Change in India (P-62) has discussed the effects of westernisation. Due to westernization, there has been a multifaceted change in the Indian society, which can be seen from the following points


  1. Change in Caste System: The biggest impact of westernization on social life was that caste bondage, the feeling of untouchability has ended. This process laid more emphasis on social equality. Due to its effect, the person slowly started to understand that the division of castes and the system of high and low among them is not a divine creation but a planned social policy. As a result, most of the people started opposing the caste rules. The result of this is that today the social contacts related to caste related to food-drinking, untouchability and business have completely ended. The lower castes started raising their social status by imitating the practices of the upper castes. Today, with the removal of all social and economic disabilities of Scheduled Castes and other backward classes and giving them special voting rights, the entire structure of the caste system has been shattered.


  1. Changes in the status of women: Due to Westernization, changes in the status of women started taking place. With this effect, when personal freedom increased, then women also tried to increase their economic self-reliance by entering into various professions and services. Increasing rights of women in family, marriage and public life today is the result of these conditions. Changes in the attitudes of men towards women are also influenced by the ideology of western culture which gives importance to humanistic and egalitarian values.


  1. Change in joint family: Due to the influence of westernization, personal freedom is helpful in the advancement of the individual. For this reason people separate from the joint family and establish a single family in the cities. This culture has

He inspired them to enhance their abilities and skills to achieve high status and use their earned income with freedom. Due to this idea being against the joint family system, those people who were more capable and courageous started leaving the joint family. As a result, there was a rapid increase in nuclear families. Influenced by the ideology presented by westernization related to equality and material happiness, women also started favoring personal freedom and small family. When women entered different economic sectors, it was no longer possible for their family to remain united. The result of this is that today apart from the cities, there is continuous decrease in the structure of joint families in the villages as well.


  1. Change in customs: Westernization brought about a vast change in customs, manners, living, eating habits, lifting and sitting, methods related to each and every sphere of life. For example handshake, good morning, sorry, pant-shirt etc.


  1. Changes in marriage: As a result of westernisation, co-education, opportunity for men and women to work together, instead of following the rules of endogamy, it is considered better to choose a suitable life partner. As a result of this, on the one hand, the practice of delayed marriages increased, and on the other hand, many educated and aware people started doing inter-caste marriages. At this time marriage was seen as the basis of a healthy family life. As a result, on the one hand, the number of divorces started increasing, and on the other, the rules related to endogamy and exogamy started weakening. Along with this, the trend of marriage with the person of one’s choice increased, which is called love marriage.


  1. Changes in religious life: Due to the influence of the culture of westernization, there is a wide change in the attitudes of superstitions, rituals and bad practices based on religion. When Christian preachers started motivating people to accept Christianity by drawing attention towards superstitions and bad practices prevalent in Hinduism, then Hindus themselves also got inspiration to evaluate the customs based on their religion. At this time, educated and prudent people started opposing Devavasi practice, untouchability, sati-practice, child-marriage, control over widow-marriage and low status of women etc. dedicated by religion. Impressed by the ideal of humanism and social equality presented by the Christian missionaries to the people, many reformist sects in India tried to bring useful changes in Hindu religion by clarifying the importance of religious equality, human service and fraternity. The role of Arya Samaj and Ramakrishna Mission is more important. Due to the influence of the ideology of westernization, the effect of ghost-ghosts and sentimentality started decreasing, along with the change in the ideology of rationality and karmaism. Along with this, secularism developed.


  1. Increase in individualistic and materialistic values: Due to the influence of westernization importance is given to the development of meaning through hard work and its use in the interest of individuality. These are the conditions due to which secondary and interest-oriented social relations started increasing instead of primary relations in our society. Today, the importance of showing off is increasing even in family and friendship relations. Most of the people take more interest in those works from which they can get personal benefit. Traditionally, a person’s income was considered to be the moral right of all his close blood relatives, but today a person considers it appropriate to use his success only for personal interest. This change of attitudes and ideas has affected the form of all the traditional institutions of India.


  1. Changes in Politics: Due to the influence of westernization, democratic and democratic institutions also started developing in our country. The British governance system was based on capitalist ideals, which itself was compounded by several social defects. As a result of the reaction of these defects, communist, socialist and individualistic political ideas and principles also spread in this country.


  1. Development of Humanism: Dr. M. N. Srinivas says that westernization includes some special values which we can address as ‘Humanism’. ‘Humanism’ is such a feeling in which special importance is given to the imagination of human beings without paying attention to the caste, economic status, age, gender and religion of the person. such feelings

As a result, consciousness about human rights has arisen in all sections of the society. The special rights given to the lower castes and backward castes in our society only explains the increase in humanism. The British believed that when the consciousness of their rights would arise in the neglected and backward sections of the society, then these sections themselves would start demanding equality. This work could not be done during the British rule, but after independence, these classes have started demanding their rights and equality in all areas of urban, rural and tribal areas.


  1. Growth of Nationalism: Western culture, education and ideologies have not only made us aware of the world

Not only did it bring them into contact with the national life, but also created a cultural commonality among the various diametrically opposite groups within the country. Seeing this cultural similarity and other foreign nations, a new wave of unity and nationalism was seen in Indian life.


  1. Changes in the economic sector: As a result of westernization, the means of transport improved and industrialization increased, due to which the economic self-sufficiency of the village gradually ended and the commercialization of agriculture started. Another effect on the economic life of the village was the destruction of village industries, as home industry could not stand the competition of machine industry. At the same time, the old land system prevalent in the village was abolished and the Zamindari system was developed. Thus an exploitative system started in the village. On the other hand, industrialization in the city resulted in rapid economic growth. Big mills and factories were established, the use of machines increased day by day and production started on a large scale. Due to advancement in the means of transport, not only inter-state trade increased, but inter-state trade also increased, due to which the country’s trade and commerce also progressed. Today, the government policy of globalization and liberalization in business is also a result of westernization in a way.


  1. Changes in literature: Western education and culture have also influenced the literature of various Indian languages. English literature is considered very rich in all the modern literatures of the world. The English language provided Indian scholars and writers the opportunity to read and understand these English literature and the literature of other languages of Europe and to benefit from it. Due to this, western literary style, content and ideas started being included in the literature of Hindi as well as all other provincial languages and their modernization took place. In the novels and stories of Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, Rabindranath Tagore, Bankimchandra Chatterjee, the main problems of the Hindu society got a place, which was the influence of the British rule literature. In the last phase of the 19th century, influenced by the British rule and education, some writers of Bengal wrote about social reform and national enthusiasm in their literature. Among them, ‘Anand Math’ written by Bankimchandra Chatterjee is called the Bible of Indian Nationalism. In this book, he wrote the national song ‘Vande Mataram’ 1. In this way, westernization has brought multifarious changes in the Indian society, which have affected all areas of family, marriage, kinship, religion, education, literature, art, music, customs, economy, political system.






Difference between Sanskritization and Westernization:


  1. Westernization occurring in Indian society 1. Sanskritization is an endogenous process occurring in Indian society. Its wali is an exogenous process. Its source is in the Indian society itself, the existing source is outside the Indian society. There is a western country.


  1. Sanskritization is a very ancient process 2. Westernization is relatively a modern process.


  1. Sanskritization is a narrow process 3. Westernization is a broad process. Because it is related only to the following because it is related to all castes and castes. from classes.


  1. In Sanskritization the lower castes try to raise the traditional social level by imitating their own culture by imitating the western upper castes. Makes an effort


  1. Sanskritization according to Srinivas. 5. From westernization there are only postural changes and from structural only postural changes, both types of changes take place. not structural.


  1. The ideal model in sanskritization is higher 6. The ideal model in westernization is a varna or a local dominant caste. It is a western country.


  1. Puritan ideals in sanskritization. 7. Importance is given to worldly ideals in westernization. importance is given.


  1. Sanskritization brings more mobility than 8. Westernization brings.


  1. The reverse process of Sanskritisation. 9. Any opposite process of westernization is called Sanskritization. Although western countries are influenced by non-western countries.


  1. Economic prosperity and political power. 10. Factors contributing to Westernization are the major contributing factors in Sanskritization. Prediction cannot be made.



  Difference between sanskritization and modernization:


  1. Sanskritization in Indian society. 1. Sanskritization is an endogenous process taking place in the Indian society. It is an exogenous process. Its source is in the Indian society itself, that is, the source exists outside the Indian society. There is a western country.


  1. Sanskritization is a very ancient process. 2. Modernization is relatively a relatively new process.


  1. Sanskritization is a narrow process. 3. Modernization is a comprehensive process because it is related only to the following because it is related to castes in all areas. from change.
  2. In sanskritization, the lower castes try to imbibe modern values to raise their traditional social status by imitating the higher castes. tries to


  1. Sanskritization according to Srinivas 5. Modernization leads to structural and structural changes only, both structural types

changes are not structural. There are


  1. Ideal model in sanskritization High 6. Ideal model in modernization is any varna or local dominant caste. can also be western country, america or other modern country


  1. Puritan ideals are given importance in sanskritization. 7. Modernization gives importance to worldly ideals. importance is given.


  1. Relatively less due to sanskritization 8. Relatively more mobility comes from modernization. Mobility ensues.


  1. The opposite process of sanskritization 9. Any opposite process of modernization is called Sanskritization. Although traditionalism and fundamentalism are being encouraged in some countries.


  1. Economic prosperity and political. 10. Various supporting forces in modernization are major contributing factors in sanskritization which are not predictable factors. can be imposed.

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