Women’s Movement

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The position of women in India has been lower than men till the medieval period, but in the nineteenth century, many efforts were made to improve the status of women in which Sati system, girl child slaughter, widow remarriage etc. can be discussed.  It is true that this effort was not made by men only to get rid of these evils by women themselves. The main reason was that women were completely deprived of education but later on gradually the emphasis was on women’s education.  There was a demand for his participation in public life.  By the first decade of the 20th century, some Indian women felt that it was imperative to have an All India Women’s Organization to improve the status of women, as a result, in 1910, the Sarla Devi Chaudharani Great Circle of Indian Women  Established.  Between 1910 and 1920, many women’s organizations developed rapidly such as Mahila Samiti, Women’s Club, Ladies Societies etc.  Madras women arrived in 1917

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Women’s Indian Association was established in which other small associations were assimilated and many branches were opened in many places.  In this way, the Women’s Indian Association can be seen as the first all-India women’s organization.  In later years, two other all-India organizations were formed – National Council of Women in India (1926), All India Women Conference (1927).  By 1932, the number of female members in the National Women Organization increased to over 10,000.  In the early days of the women’s movement, two women contributed significantly towards accelerating women’s organizations.

(i) Sarojanalini Dutt (1887–1925) She greatly encouraged the Mahila Samiti movement in Bengal.  She established the first women’s committee in Pabna in 1913 and then in 1916 in Virbhum, 1916 in Sultanpur, 1917 in Rampurhat, 1918 in Bankura in 1921.  The main objective of these institutions is to provide interest and practical knowledge to the women living in the curtain in the problem of normal life.  Although initially opposed by some men, Sarojanalani Dutt achieved considerable success in overcoming this obstacle.  These women’s organizations had two major successes.

(i) These people gave a forum, forum for women to keep their demands.

(2) Through this, adult education became possible and at the same time it helped to develop the sense of nationalism.

(3) Sarojanelini mainly focused on improving the economic condition of women.  After her death in 1925, her husband and admirers established the Sarojanalani Dutt Memorial Association for Women’s Work in Bengal in her memory.

(ii) Sarojini Naidu (1879–1949) can be named in the second famous woman.  Sarojini Naidu actively participated in the establishment of the All India Women’s Organization in 1917.  Among other women who have contributed to its establishment is Annie Besent Marguet Cousin f 54 Ft Te * known as the Women’s Indian Association.  When the All Indian Women Conferences was established in 1926, Naidu presided over it till 1930.  She inspired many women to join the freedom struggle, among whom the name of Kapla Devi Chattopadhyay is notable.  To uplift the status of women, he said that Indian women are “descendants of Sita and Savitri, so these women should play a major role in building society and nation.  “The legal status of women changed after independence in 1947. The Indian constitution not only discussed gender equality by abolishing gender discrimination but also several statutory rules MÀ Hindu Marriage Act 1955, The Successia Act. 1956, The Adoption  Explained the role of women at the statutory level through 1956. In the true sense, all these statutory rules were based on the demand of women’s organizations which had been in existence for years. After independence, women education, adult suffrage, legal reform and gender equality etc.  Women’s organizations today told women that they are not weak and helpless from anywhere, but they have enough power to meet their demands. In independent India, many women’s organizations and women’s magazines began to improve the condition. International women in 1975 Since then, international women’s conferences are held.  The National Commission for Women was established in our country.  Therefore, efforts are on in independent India.  Overall, it can be said that women’s organizations and women’s magazines – magazines like Manorama, Munsi, Saheli etc. Khatun Mashriq brought awareness among women by raising the problem of women.

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Today we know that many women’s organizations are working at the national level such as Jago Bahn, All India Women’s Association etc.  It is true that as a result of the women’s movement, women found inspiration similar to men in many areas of life, the problems related to women are still not over.  Still many problems related to women are dowry, rape, sexual exploitation etc.  Krishak Movement: Mainly we will discuss here Kisan Sabha movement, Telangana movement, Tibhaga movement and Naxalite movement.  It is an established fact that many peasants’ movements took place in the first half of the 20th century in North India, a major aspect of which was that this movement also participated in the freedom struggle, in fact, as soon as the farmers realized the power of collectivity, in some provinces,  The process of formation of Kisan Sabha started.  These Kisan Sabhas could not form any central organization in their initial form.  Kisan Sabha Movement: The civil disobedience movement that took place in the 1930s forced socialists, communists and progressive Congressmen to think that a central organization should be established.  Consequently 11 Apr.  The All India Kisan Sabha was established in 1936 in Lucknow.  In the manifesto of the Kisan Sabha, to eradicate the farmers from economic exploitation, it was proposed to eradicate zamindari and also said that the landowner should be the owner.  In other words, whose land is holding.  Between 1937 and 1939, the Kisan Sabha achieved some success in Bihar, where the development movement began.  The Kisan Sabha was established in Bihar in 1928-1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati.  Swamiji spent his life like a monk and played a major role in organizing all categories of farmers against exploitation.  In 1936, he started the development movement.  In fact, the land acquired was the special land of the landlords on which they used to give the tenant (plowingman) to plow the land on the condition that a particular part of the produce would be given to the landlord in the form of rent.  It was the tendency of the zamindars to convert the Tenancy land into a veritable land because they feared that the Teanant would not take possession of it.  In 1936, the zamindars in Barhiya Tall started snatching the land from Tenant and as a result, the Kisan Sabha protested and the movement started.  Although the Congress government passed the Bihar Tenancy Act 1938 there was no effect on the landlords and they arbitrarily evicted the tenant from the ground.  In 1939, a meeting of All India Kisan Sabha was held in Gaya in which about one lakh farmers participated.  Since the government had a secret agreement with the landlords, the erstwhile government did not give any support in accelerating the peasant movement.  Since the peasant movement


The social reform movement in India gave the slogan “Lathi hamara zindabad” so the government warned the workers of Kisan Sabha not to join Kisan Sabha.  But Sahajanand Saraswati was still angry with the Congress and this was the reason that he came close to Subhash Chandra Bose and consequently the Congress party expelled him.  Sahajanand Swami was imprisoned in Hazaribagh Jail but by then World War II had started, the government started attacking the leader of the Kisan Sabha in 1942 AD.  Ranga Sahajanand Saraswati broke off from the Kisan Sabha in 1945. By this time, the Kisan Sabha was completely in the hands of the Communist.  The question arises as to why the peasant movement became disenchanted when the farmers’ complaint did not go away – in response Walter Houser says that Swami Sahajanand’s ideology underwent a rapid change and he went from a rash nationalist to an anti-Natonal left.  But Sunil Sen does not agree with this view.  He says that the bitter relationship between Congress and Kisan Sabha was natural but the peasant movement started challenging the domination of upper castes, Brahmin Bhumihars etc. in the rural power structure.  B.  B.  Chaudhary also disagreed with Houser, saying that the changes in Sahajanand’s ideology had no effect on the common farmer.  In fact, the leaders of the Kisan Sabha have never wanted to move away from national independence to run a peasant movement, it is true that the Kisan Sabha prepared a wide separate land for the peasant movement, which led to many important movements in the future, Naxalite in Bengal, Telangana in Andhra.  Tibhaga Movement (1946-47): Just before Independence and the Partition of Bengal, in 1946, a peasant revolt emerged in the United Bengal province known as ‘Tibhaga Movement’.  According to the moneylenders, this movement was of the Baitidars who wanted to keep two thirds of the crop with them.  In this way, there was a demand to reduce the half of the crop given to the tenants as rent.  It was a class of tenant rich peasants who held the land.  This movement proceeded under the leadership of Bengal Kisan Sabha.  This movement created a force against the tenants, landlords, traders and the British administration, activating various tenants such as agricultural laborers, sharecroppers and poor farmers.  a .  R.  According to Desai, this movement was originally an economic struggle.  But it took a political color when it was confronted with the landowners and the political system of the state.  In this context, we shall now consider the origin of the movement.  In this system, the economic status of the people at the lower levels of the peasant hierarchy became very insecure while the groups at the higher levels had a lot of purchasing power from the peasant economy, while the agricultural laborers were suffering from exploitation, poverty and insecurity.  The deteriorating economic condition of the lower classes led to an extraordinary increase in the number of sharecroppers and agricultural laborers in the farming society of this period.  The increase in the number of sharecroppers during this period was related to indebtedness of small cultivators.  He was indebted to the village moneylenders, traders and other middlemen.


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After giving four or five times the amount of money in the form of condition and direction, they could not get free from debt and gradually their land passed to the merchant moneylenders and middlemen landowners.  These poor farmers were re-established on that land on the condition that they would give half of the produce to the land lord.  As far as land relations are concerned, an annual settlement with the tenants was wanted.  They removed and engaged the sharecroppers as they wished.  In order to protect their tenants, the sharecroppers were forced to bear some additional economic obligations to the landowners.  Following are some aspects in this regard 1. On several occasions they had to give perjury in court to protect the interests of their land owners.  2. They had to consider the landowners as “Annadata” and respected them in every sphere of life.  3. They had to do unemployment (only on food) in the fields of their landowners at the time of farming.  4. The life and property of the land owners had to be protected without any remuneration.  6. They had to appear at their landlord’s house at any time of need.  7. They had to plow some of the land owned by their animals without any payment.  The sharecropping system, which was the mainstay of the peasant social structure, emerged as more oppressive and exploitative.

The big landowners used this institution to increase their economic interests, control the farming population and strengthen their social status.  The question of the deteriorating economic condition of the farming community arose several times during the British rule.  But only after 1920, these questions were systematically noticed.  After the formation of the Bengal Kisan Sabha as the provincial branch of the All India Kisan Sabha in 1936, a lot of agitation arose over farmers’ questions.

The main objectives of the Kisan Sabha were.  Restoring economic and political rights to farmers.  The formation of Kisan Sabha opened the way for political mobilization of the farming community in Bengal.  Gradually the workers of the Kisan Sabha became active in organizing the farmers and agricultural laborers against the suppression of the big landowners in the rural areas.  The Kisan Sabha began to focus on the problem of sharecroppers. In November 1946, in Calcutta, they passed a resolution of “tibhaga” for the bataidars. The Kisan Sabha was organized in rural areas to mobilize the bataidars against the big landowners.  .  The main center of activities of the Kisan Sabha activists became the northern part of Bengal.  Because the shareholding system was very prevalent in this area and there were a large number of people belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, especially in Dinajpur district.  This movement spread like davanal (forest fire) in the northern districts of the state and spread to the southern districts respectively.

At the time of harvesting, this movement reached its peak, the poor farmers became organized.  They shouted slogans, “Save paddy in your barn” – leave India, the brokers of British rule, want a three-part plot of land that is plowed, Inklab Zindabad. Ha gon to defy all traditional bonds

For the social reform movement in India, he stored the paddy crop in his barns.  Traditionally, they had to deposit paddy crop in the barns of landowners.  The landlords enlisted the help of the police to suppress the movement. The sharecroppers in the northern parts of the state faced tremendous resistance, even the peasant women came out with their traditional weapons like lathi, broom, saw, arrow and bow.  There was fierce struggle between police and farmers in about 19 districts.  In many places, the police fired indiscriminate bullets on unarmed farmers.  Many farmers including women were killed.  Despite repressive measures, the Tibhaga movement progressively progressed until 1947 March.  Later, the organizational weaknesses of the Kisan Sabha emerged.  The Kisan Sabha failed to maintain order in the midst of small-scale conflicts in various parts of the state.  On March 28, 1947, the Communist Party called for a general strike against police repression in rural areas and in support of the demand for Tibhaga.  The events of that time, especially the Bengal-Partition question and the communal riots that began in Calcutta on 27 March 1947, overshadowed the ideologies and tensions that led to the emergence of the Tibhaga movement.  But the violent mobilization of the peasants expressed in this movement shook the roots of feudal repression in rural Bengal.  In the post-independence period, there have been two important agrarian movements in India – Telangana and Naxalbari Movement.  Naxalwari Movement: Between 1947 and 1967, the plight of low-level farmers in West Bengal worsened.  Although the government of West Bengal abolished the middle classes by enacting a law, after that large parts of the land remained concentrated in the hands of the big Bhupathis.  During this period, the pressure on the people of the land increased due to various reasons such as – sluggish industrial development is no other form of planning for the rural masses and increasing crowds of refugees from East Pakistan.

It is for this reason that the Naxalwari movement was born in 1967 in West Bengal. In fact, the leaders of G.P.I.M who were influenced by Chinese ideas like Harekrishna, and Pramod Das Gupta etc., instigated the peasants against the big landlords in the area of ​​Shilliguri.  Wagenar said in his speech in 1964 that resolving land disputes is not possible in a parliamentary manner, so farmers should be ready to take up arms.  In this meeting it was also decided that the movement should be started after the general elections in March 1967, but the participation of CPIM in the United Front government which had been formed since 1967, the leaders of CPIM took the second stand and started to argue that  The Congress party’s defeat in the general election has created a different atmosphere and its party will give prominence to resolve land disputes while in power.  But on the other hand, the leaders of the C.P.I.M of Darjeeling routine have the best opportunity to do this.CP.I.M realized that the Central Committee of the peasant movement dissolved the Darjeeling District Committee and expelled forty members.  But these expelled members formed another organization under the leadership of Sushil Rai Chaudhary named Naxalwari O.  The Krishak Sangharsh Sahayak Samiti (NKSS) other scattered pieces started the Gorilla Type Rebellion based on the Cuban pattern but does not do the farming himself but leases the land to the tenants.  Generally, there were three classes of tenant farmers.  Permanent tenant, willful tenant and deputy tenant.  In practice the permanent tenant is accepted as the land lord.  But the position of voluntary tenant and deputy tenant was pathetic.  They were exploited in various ways.  Like repeated increase in rent, eviction of small things etc., they were exploited by many measures.  Therefore, it was necessary to form a direct connection with the government while preserving the rights of the lease.  Regulation of rent: Before independence, rent was either fixed on the basis of custom or on the basis of demand and market forces which ranged from 34 to 75% of the production.  Therefore, it was necessary to reduce the rent by making laws.  In this context, it was recommended in the first and second plan that revenue should not exceed 1 or 1 of gross yield.  Tenancy – Protection of rights: Under the Land Reform Program, the right to permanent ownership is provided to the farmers at will.  Three basic objectives were taken into account while framing laws related to tenant protection.  (i) There is no eviction of farmers outside the sections of the law (ii) Permission of landlord to reclaim land for tenure only.  (iii) The farmers should be allowed to have fixed minimum land for reclaiming the land.  Another serious problem under this is “voluntary surrender.” Many landowners pressured the tenants to abandon the land at their will to avoid the laws, so it was suggested in the Fourth Plan that whoever  The tenant leaves the land at his own will, not being the owner of the land, but the right to the government. Many states adopted this suggestion. – Ownership rights to tenants: One of the most important objective of land reform is to provide ownership rights for tenants.  For this, the third plan stated that tenants should be asked to buy land by abolishing the alternative right, because earlier in the second plan the tenant’s right to buy land in those areas which the land owners could not reclaim.  Was optional. Legislation was enacted in many states for this purpose. Maximum limit of land holdings: By fixing the maximum limit of land holdings, the limited amount of land available is less than the demand in a fair manner among various producers engaged in agricultural work.  Sharing equipment  Is a.  In the land reforms, it was envisaged that the state would take over land from landlords and distribute it to small land owners so that they could make their holdings profitable or this land would be given to the landless laborers so that their land needs would be fulfilled.  As possible, the main basis of which is the reduction in agricultural income estimates.  For social justice, it is necessary that everyone should have a stake in the main source of income, rather than the right of a particular class on the land.  Therefore, the best way to reduce income inequalities is to reduce land ownership .


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It was the group which gained more recognition under the chairmanship of Charu Mazumdar.  Its other members were Kanu Sanyal, Soren Bose etc.  Who hastened the Naxalwari movement.  Therefore, it can be clearly said that the Naxalwari movement started in 1967 under the leadership of Charu Mazumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Soren Bose.  Later the organizations of this party were organized in the states of Bihar, Punjab, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala etc. and in this way the Inter-State Coordination Committee of the Organization of Extremists was formed in many states.  The result of all this was that on the occasion of Lenin’s birthday on 22 April 1969, a third Communist Party, CPIML, was formed in the year of birth.  The establishment of this party was announced by Kanu Sanyal in a rally organized on the occasion of May Day in Calcutta.  After the establishment of the CPIML, it took a slightly different form from the Naxalwari movement where in the Naxalwari movement, their methods forcefully occupied the benami land, special land, etc. After 1969, violent elements were added to it and its sole goal became to wipe out the enemy.  .  Simply put, they wanted equal distribution of land through violence.  This movement had a wide impact in Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar.  The Naxalwari movement in Bihar started almost simultaneously with the Sarvodaya movement and it is mainly concentrated in Central Bihar which is headed by Vinod Mishra etc.  Now Vineed Mishra is no more, hence the leader of CPIML has now become Dipankar Bhattacharya.  Vinod Mishra died in December 1988.  Telangana Movement (1948-52): The Telangana movement is known as a major movement launched by the Communist Party of India in Andhra Pradesh soon after India’s independence.  However, it was only in the middle of 1946 that the peasants revolted against the Nizam.  , Which lasted for 5 years and ended in October 1951.  Hence, the period of this movement is broadly considered as 1946 to 1951 52.


The Telangana movement can be known as a military movement for two reasons:

1. The Nizam’s government completely failed to break up the rebel peasant organization.

2. The rebels gathered all kinds of peasants with them and instigated them against the Nizam.  Although the Andhra Zamindari Raiyat Organization was formed in 1931, the main objectives of which were 1. The land held by the Raiyyat should be declared as the Riyyati land.  2. The rent should be fixed according to the yield.  If due to any reason the yield of the crop is reduced, the amount of rent should be forgiven or reduced.


3. Most of the land of the Zamindari farm land should be declared as ryati land.  Although the Andhra Zamindari Raiyat Association voiced its opposition against the Nizam, it was unable to create any movement.  In 1937, the Kisan Sabha was formed in Andhra Pradesh, which organized an organized march of farmers in 1500 miles of 9 districts.  Kisan Sabha

Social reform movement activities in main India were limited to the coastal districts of Krishna and West Godavari.  In 1944, the annual conference of All India Kisan Sabha was organized in Vijayawada in which a voluntary organization of HO00 members was formed and about 1 lakh farmers gathered from different villages in this conference.  As a result, the Telangana movement near Hyderabad started gaining momentum.  The area of ​​Hyderabad had some special features at that time.  It included three regions of Telangana, Karnataka and Marathwada with the highest number of Telugu speakers.  Telugu was the language of administration.  This Telangana region had around 85% Hindus population, while their numbers were negligible in the Nizam rule of Hyderabad.  The land in the Telangana region was mainly confined in the hands of Jagirdars, Deshpusas, Patels and Patwaris.  There were only a few Hindus in it.  The Andhra Mahasabha was formed in the Telangana region in 1930 as a political organization, headed mainly by Ravinarayan Reddy and Badam Alla Reddy.  These two leaders along with their followers joined the Communists in the Communist movement of 1940–42.  In 1946 a wealthy landowner.  I Vishnu Ramchandra Reddy of Jangaon taluk ousted a woman named Elgaga from Dhobin from her field and grabbed all her grain.  As a result, the peasants not only opposed this attitude of the landlord, but on 4 July 1946, a protest was held around the house of Eswami.  In this demonstration, a worker of Kisan Sabha named Daddy Koomarreeyae was injured by the bullet of Bhumi Swamy and died on the spot.  At the same time, some farmers were also injured.  As a result, this movement started gaining momentum.  Although the police issued a warrant of arrest.  Grabbed the place – home, but still they could not stop the movement.  The fact is that hundreds of thousands of farmers started gathering in the villages of Telangana in a blink of an eye.  Initially this movement was limited only to Nalgonda district and a few areas of adjacent Barangal district.  But another form of this movement emerged when the Nizam of Hyderabad refused to join independent India after attaining independence due to the nexus with the British.  As soon as the Congress Party started the Civil Disobedience Movement to join Andhra with the whole of India, the Kisan movement started gaining momentum.  Joint meetings of both Communist and Congress parties started and they started demonstrating jointly and the agitation of the peasants started gaining momentum against the Nizam.  Meanwhile, an organization called ‘Ittehad-ul Muslimeen’ also called ‘Razakars’ (Rajakars) pledged to maintain the strength of Muslims in the Deccan region till the last moment.  The leader of this organization was ‘Qasim Rizvi’.  As a result, the peasants started taking up arms against the Razakars and were constantly alert to protect themselves from the Razakars’ invasion.  According to a government report, the flags of both the Communist and the Congress combined, where it is worth mentioning the fact that the Andhra Kisan Sabha had been following the policy of appeasing the rich farmers since its inception.  His policy was in full swing during the Telangana conflict.  Although the main objective of the Kisan Sabha was to maintain unity.  Since this area was backward in terms of technological development, the role of big farmers was important in the development of agriculture.

It was decided that the rich peasants should be neutralized through Persuasion.  The Kisan Sabha set a limit of 10 acres for irrigated land under the demarcation of land, which continues to fear the progressive farmers that any damage will be done to them if the agitation agitates.  But, the question here is important that how will the Kisan Sabha be able to pacify the poor farmers, whose purpose is to avoid the tyranny of the landlords and get land for themselves.  Chester Bowls, reacting to the Telangana movement, wrote that the Telangana movement was different from the peasant movement that took place in different parts of India.  This movement was mainly based on the footsteps of Maotsatung in China in the countryside.  Indeed, Telangana regions not only had terrible poverty but also had a badly uneven distribution of land.  As a result, the Communist Party started organizing the exploited, oppressed and oppressed poor peasants against the Nizam and immediately farmers from hundreds of villages gathered.  Chester Bowles states that the organization of Telangana farmers in developing countries is an indicator that the poor farmer is starving the land and until the land is evenly distributed (there is no equal distribution of land) any developing  The success and failure of the country depends on it.  In other words, the problem of land is the dominant problem in developing countries.  P.  Twenty years after the end of the Telangana movement, Sundaraiyya presented an account of the movement.  He found that this movement helped the farmers to get organized on a large scale.  However, the structural and class character of this movement should be thoroughly investigated.  However D.D.  N.  Reacting to the success and failure of this movement, Dhanagade (D.N. Dhangare) has said that few movements in India have achieved success like Telangana movement.  But if we follow its far-reaching effects on the agricultural structure and the conditions of its main participants, then we can say that the achievement of the Telangana movement was not unique to other movements in India.  Barrington Moore Junior, expressing his opinion on the Telangana movement, said that this movement showed that Indian farmers have immense revolutionary potential.  The peasant movement prevailed before independence, after the colonial exploitation of the British, the Indian farmers suffered the most.  Colonial economic policies The new system of land revenue and the colonial administrative and judicial system broke the back of farmers.  Then due to the destruction of the handicraft industries, the people engaged in these industries were also forced to return to agriculture, due to which the pressure on the cultivable land also increased and in this way the entire structure of agriculture was changed in the areas with large landholding.


Atrocities on the farmers started increasing, the landlords used to collect illegal rents from them and forced them to perform forced labor.  In the Ryotwari areas, the government did the same thing by increasing the rent rates wildly.  As a result, the farmers gradually fell into the clutches of the Mahajans, and in this way their land crops and animals came out of their hands into the hands of landlords, traders, Mahajans and rich farmers.  The owner of the land became a small farmer like mere farmers, sharecroppers and agricultural laborers.


  1. Nil Movement (1859-60): To break this domestic and foreign exploitation cycle, the peasants got together and started a struggle against the landlords and the government.  The struggle of the peasants after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 was that this movement in Bengal regarding indigo farming was a direct fight of the farmers against exploitation.  Cultivate  The indigo producers wanted to do farming by paying a small amount which the farmers did not like.  The producers could not cope with the united resistance of the farmers, gradually they started to stop cultivating indigo.  By 1860 indigo cultivation in Bengal was completely over.


  1. Pavana Rebellion (1873–76): There was a massive agrarian unrest in the 1870s in most areas of Bengal.  The reason for this was that the zamindars raised the rent rates even higher than the legal limit.  At the same time, under the Act (10) of 1859, the landowners were also plotting to keep the tenants irrigated by the rights which the landowners had got.  Farmers were being implicated in various types of false cases.  The resentment among the farmers against such atrocities increased and as a result they came out on the struggle.  This struggle lasted for many days.  Due to the neutral policy of the British Government, no solution was found to this conflict.

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  1. Deccan nuisance of 1875: The peasant struggle of Maharashtra and Gujarat, known as Deccan Viplav, started in 1875.  The main targets were the moneylender Mahajan and the moneylender.  The law system of British rule had given the right to Mahajan and moneylenders that they can evict the farmer’s farm and house to recover the debt.  Taking advantage of this right, the moneylender was becoming the owner of the farmer’s land.  It was only natural to develop discontent.  The struggle began on May 12, 1875 in the East Poona district.  Soon this movement spread throughout Maharashtra and Gujarat.  The houses, establishments of moneylenders were attacked.  The struggle continued despite government pressure.  The Duccan Agriculture Relief Act of 1879 gave farmers more protection than before, which was the result of the conflict.
  2. Champaran Rebellion of 1917: The struggle of Champaran was indicative of peasant consciousness against the economic exploitation of British indigo products and the oppression and atrocities of their employees.  The farmers of Champaran had been opposing the Tinkathiya (Tinakathia) system for long and the increase in feudal taxes.  The local and provincial leadership of the Congress also associated themselves with this process of protest.  Mahatma Gandhi came to Champaran at the invitation of Rajkumar Shukla, a farmer moneylender.  The two houses of the leadership of the Champaran peasant movement were active simultaneously.  On one hand J.B.  There were local intellectual elements like Kriplani, Rajendra Prasad, Brij Kishore Prasad, on the other hand, there were people like Harivansha Sahay, Rajkumar Shukla, Pir Mohammad, who came out of the peasantry.  Gandhiji’s role was limited to two functions.  (a) To conduct an open investigation of farmer complaints in July 1917 and (b) To publicize the problems and conflicts on an all India basis.  In this way, the result of the movement was that it was found successful in reducing the three-tier system and the ‘Sharveshi’.  This gave birth to new consciousness and courage of the farming masses.  This was an important achievement of the farmers.


.5. Kheda Movement of 1918: Due to continuous increase in the rates of rent by the government and no relaxation of concession in recovery, there was growing discontent among the farmers.  In 1917-18, the farmers had to suffer the double whammy of price rise and decrease in agricultural production.  In such a situation, farmers like Mohan-Lal Pandya decided to stop paying the revenue in November 1917. On March 22, 1918, the struggle intensified when Gandhiji joined.  The movement was postponed after taking concession from the government.


  1. Mopala Rebellion of 1921: The revolt of tenants in Malawar (Kerala) at the extreme end of the country in August 1921 was more widespread and combative than many other peasant struggles.  Its problems were that the zamindars evicted them whenever they wanted.  Used to collect arbitrary rent and tortured in various ways.  Even in the 19th century, the Mopala peasants fought against the landlords, but the rebellion that broke out in 1921 was completely dif

ferent from before.  The British government disintegrated the rebellion by giving it a form of Hindu-Muslim communalism, so that the rebellion was not fully successful despite heavy losses.  7. Bardoli movement of 1927-28: Bardoli movement was the first peasant movement to achieve success by adopting Gandhian methods.  This movement started in 1927 against the 22% increase in Lagaan in Bardoli.



At the local level, its leaders were Kunwarji and Kalyan Ji Mehta.  With his efforts and opposition, Ballabh Bhai Patel took over the leadership of the struggle.  In spite of government repression, the rent detention continued with conviction.  Finally, on the government’s assumption that it will return the seized land and conduct a judicial inquiry.  The movement ended in 1928.  The main feature of this movement was that women participated in large numbers in it.


  1. Movement of 1930s and 1940s: As soon as the Civil Disobedience Movement started in 1930, the peasants participated in it enthusiastically and in Andhra, Gujarat, United Provinces, the movement as a form of rent detention or reduction of rent.  Taken in  Kisan Sabhas were formed in Punjab (Stop Tax) and the Top Taxes Movement started.  Jungle Satyagraha was conducted in Maharashtra, Bihar and Central Provinces.  According to Bihar Chamber- “The Civil Disobedience Movement played an important role in the rise of peasant movement in another way. Its work created an entire generation of young militant political activists.”  The former result of the peasant leaders was that in April 1936, the All India Kisan Congress in Lucknow, which later called the All India Kisan Sabha, was established.  Its first president was Swami Sahajanand.  Just before this, Bihar Territorial Kisan Sabha, was formed in 1929 in Bihar.  The peasant movement developed rapidly during the years 1937–39.  The farmers of the Malabar region began to organize in the ‘Krishak Sangham’ established in 1935.


  1. Sunderaiya along with N.G Ranga contributed significantly in creating this wave of peasant movement in Andhra.  Swami Sahjanada got support from Karyanand Sharma, Rahul Sankrityayan, Panchanan Sharma and Yadunandan Sharma in organizing the farmers around the slogan of ‘Zamindari Abolition’ in Bihar.  Demand for land reform in Bihar in 1938

The social reform movement was 209, and it was engulfed in 1939.  In the Second World War the peasant movement came to a standstill.  But after the end of the war, it was destroyed again.  In Punjab and Bihar, the peasants organized and opposed the oppression of the landlords and took on the Nizamshahi.  This agitation was the biggest agrarian guerrilla struggle of this period, from July 1946 to October 1954.  About 3000 villages were affected in this.  This movement was led by ‘Andhra Mahasabha’ and ‘Communist Party’.  Sumit Sarkar has said in this regard- “The positive achievements of the Telangana struggle, whether direct or indirect, were not negligible.  “The role of peasant guerrillas was more important than any other cause in the fall of the autocratic feudal rule of India’s largest princely state. Movement of 191946: The third major movement of the post-war period was the Tebhaga movement of Bengal.  The Bataidars started this movement. The goal of the movement was to give only 3 part of the produce to the land lord. The main centers of this struggle were Dinajpur Rangpur, Jalpaiguri, Maiman Singh, Midnapore and District of 24 Parganas. The movement was led by Krishna Vinod Rai, Avni Lahiri.  , Sunil Sen, Bhavani Sen, Moni Singh, Vibhuti Guha, Samar Ganguly and Guriyas Talukedar led. The movement continued at a rapid pace until February 1947. The pre-independence movement led to major demands of the farmers thus  (I) End of Zamindari system (ii) End of forced labor (iii) Prohibition on feudal recovery (iv) Reduction in rent rates (v) Return of illegally seized land (vi) Protection of rights of tenants  (vii) Prohibition of Zamindari oppression and oppression (viii) Reasonable to the cultivators  wage .  Thus, from the above discussion we see that the pre-independence peasant movement went along with the struggle for independence and the farmer gave up everything to achieve his aim and goal.  Bipinchandra has said- “The rise and development of the peasant movement was inextricably linked with the national freedom struggle.  “He points out that” the peasant movement flourished in the same areas where the national movement was already established.  He believes that the rise of political consciousness and leadership of the farmers could not be possible due to the national movement.  In the end it can be said that the ideology of the movement was also based on nationality.  Its leaders and activists were not only spreading the message of farmers’ organization on a class basis.  They were also emphasizing the need to fight for national independence. Various social reform movements: 1. Brahma Samaj (Assembly of Brahm): The first reform movement in Hinduism was Brahma Gamaz.  Which had a great influence of modern Western ideology.  Raja Rammohan Roy (1774–1853) was its promoter.


There were great scholars who knew oriental languages ​​like Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, and English, French, Latino, Greek and Ibi languages.  As a result of their knowledge, their mind was removed from the stereotypes that often tied a Bengali.  Although Raja Rammohun Roy was a man of versatility, he had a special love for religious reform.  At the time when Tarun, who was influenced by Western education, was turning to Christianity, King Rammohan Roy appeared as the protector of Hinduism.  On the one hand he defended Hinduism against the clergy preachers and on the other hand he tried to remove the lies and beliefs that came in Hinduism.  At the age of 15, he criticized idolatry and tried to prove his point with altars.  He reinterpreted the principles of Hinduism and discovered a considerable amount of Aadhaar from the Upanishads for his human service.  He rejected Christianity and did not even accept the divinity of Mahatma Yashu.  But he did accept European humanism.  In the social field, he opposed the evils of Hindu society, Sati system, polyandry, prostitution, casteism etc.  He also supported widow remarriage.  Thus they tried to establish a co-ordination between East and West.  Even today people consider him a pioneer of modern India and a pioneer of the country because he was a symbol of the spirit of exploration – of Pippasa and of humanism which he wanted to achieve under Indian conditions.  According to Dr. Mechnikol, he was the pioneer of a new era and his lit flame is still burning till date.  In 1828 he laid the foundation of the Brahmo Samaj.  The purpose of this society, written in 1830, is the worship of the eternal, all-pervasive, unchangeable God who is the doer and protector of the whole world.  A new building was also given to the trustees, in which idolatry and sacrifice were not allowed.  His teachings also meant strengthening the bonds of mutual unity among all religions.  Raja Sahib himself remained a Hindu and continued to wear Yajnopaveet but due to his premature death in England in 1833, the society was not guided and Shanaishnayi: he was relaxed.  Maharishi Devendra Nath Tagore (1818–1905) was responsible for creating new life in this institution and advancing it as an theocratic movement.  He joined this movement in 1842 and prevented the Brahm Dharma incumbents from idol worship, pilgrimage, rituals and atonement etc.  In his view how to consider wood and stone idols as God.  To worship God in whatever form you want, that is, if anyone wants to worship in Gayatri mantra or worship it in any other way.  He appointed Keshav Chandra Sen as the Acharya of Brahma Samaj Dharma.  Under his influence the best faith and moral practices of Hinduism were maintained.  But the power, eloquence and liberal views of Keshav Chandra Sen (1834–84) made this movement popular and soon its branches were opened outside Bengal in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Madras.  In 1865 there were 65 branches in Bengal itself.  But due to his liberalism, Brahmo soon broke out in the society.  Keshav Chandra considered Hinduism to be narrow and did not understand the use of Sanskrit texts.  He also campaigned against wearing Yajnopaveet.  After this, religion books of all religions (Christian, Muslim, Zoroastrian and Chinese)

The text of the social reform movement in India began to be held in their meetings.  He also tried to remove Hindu social evils, that is, we can say that he began to consider Brahmo Samaj as a new religion reform movement, instead of considering it as Hinduism reform movement.  Devendranath Tagore removed Keshav Chandra Sen from the title of Acharya in 1865 as the only ascetic of the Brahmo Samaj.  Keshav Chandra formed a new Brahmo Samaj which he started to call ‘Indian Brahmo Samaj’.  In addition to further reforms, there was more emphasis on women’s liberation, education, sharing of cheap literature, prohibition of alcohol and giving donations.  In 1878, there was another split in this society.  Keshav Chandra Sen etc., had been promoting the age of marriage for Brahmo Samajis, but in 1878, Keshav Chandra Sen married his 13-year-old daughter to the Maharaja of Cooch Behar in a full Vedic ritual.  It was said that all this is “God’s command.  “Most followers of Keshav Chandra Sen grieved and formed a new Brahmo Samaj, a simple Brahmo Samaj. Soon Keshav Chandra’s society got lost in the obscurity of the darkness of history. The Brahmo Samaj played a very good role in the Indian Renaissance. Like H.K.  E. C. Zakarikaz has said that Raja Rammohan Roy and his Brahmo Samaj were the starting point of all reform movements in India, whether it was Hinduism, society or political. The mind which was influenced by Christian propaganda and its bond with Hinduism  Almost broke, he took refuge in the Brahmo Samaj. The importance of the Brahmo Samaj in the field of religion was not in what ancient traditions it retained, but in what traditions and beliefs it gave up.

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From this we can say that it (i) gave up avatarism. (Ii) It also said that religious texts cannot be considered above human conscience and logic. (Iii) It gave up polytheism and idolatry. (Iv)  ) Criticized Varna system. (V) But in relation to Karma principle and rebirth  By not giving a definite opinion, he was allowed to believe or not to believe every Brahmo Samaj.  It also had an impact on Hindu society regarding social reforms.  He rejected many superstitions and dogma.  Contemporary restrictions on foreign travel were challenged, and tried to build the reputation of women.  Struggled to end multi-marriage, sati, child-marriage and purdah and widow-marriage and female education.  They also tried to remove casteism and untouchability, although they were not very successful in this.  Brahm ide or the Brahmo ideology in Maharashtra also spread in Maharashtra and a Paramhansa Sabha was started here in 1849.  In 1867, a prayer society was established in Bombay with the inspiration of Keshav Chandra.  But these people did not consider themselves as followers of any new religion or outside of Hinduism or together with any new faith, but accepted it as a movement only within this religion.  Apart from a theism, social reform in Maharashtra, ‘work not faith’ was emphasized.  He believed that the true love of God is in the service of his men.  He did not want to compete with Hindu conservatives but emphasized on education and persuasion.  Samyo

– Social Change in India: Condition and Direction 212 Their four main objectives in social reform were- (i) Opposition of caste caste, (ii) Increasing the age of marriage of men and women, (ii) Female education The main leaders of this society  Justices Mahadev Govind Ranade (1842–1901) and N.  G.  Chandravarkar (1855–1923).  The ‘Dalit Jati Mandal’, Samaj Seva Seva Sangh and Deccan Shiksha Sabha established by this society have done commendable work.  Education centers of Brahmo Samaj were also opened in Madras.  Dayal Singh Pranyas in Punjab opened Dayal Singh College in 1910 to try the ideas of this society.  2. Prarthana Samaj: Prarthana Samaj was established in Maharashtra in 1867 on the basis of Brahmas Samaj.  Its founder was Atmaram Podurang.  The aim of establishing this institution was social reform.  This society opposed caste system and placed more emphasis on international marriage, widow marriage, female education etc.  It established several public welfare institutions with the aim of improving untouchability and the condition of Dalits and victims.  Later Mahadev Govind Ranade, Sir R.V.  D.  Great men like Bhandarkar, Sir Narayan Chandravarkar etc. also served this society.  In 1861, Mahadev Govind Ranade founded the ‘Widow Association’ for the promotion of widow marriage in Maharashtra.  As a result of his efforts, the Society for Southern Education was born.


This society opened many schools.  Ranade was particularly interested in social reform.  In 1867, an All India Organization called Indian Social Conference (Indian Social Conference) was established.  Ranade was the general secretary of this organization for 14 years.  Under the leadership of Ranade, this organization aimed at the modernization of Indian society, abolition of caste system, inter-caste marriages, increasing the age of marriage, discouraging the practice of polygamy, widows – remarriage, female education, settling religious disputes of Hindus – Muslims by calling them panchayats.  Campaign for various programs etc.  Gokhale, a disciple of Ranade, founded the ‘Sarvent of India Society’.  The Prarthana Samaj ran a night school for the workers.  It set up a Dalit class mission for the emancipation of Dalits.  An orphanage and a refugee were opened in Pandharpur.  Women’s Association was established for the education of girls.  Its efforts towards inter-caste marriage and catering, widow marriage and improving the condition of women have been laudable.  Prayer owes Ranade the success of the society.  Ranade was a staunch reformer and held an important place in the history of the Indian Renaissance.  3. Arya Samaj: The spread of Arya Samaj movement was often in response to western influences.  This movement was only a resurgence in form and not in elements.  Neither Swami Dayanand nor his Guru Swami Virjanand were influenced by Western education.  Both of them believed in the pure Vedic tradition and shouted the slogan “Move again to the Vedas”. They called all other divergences from the later Vedic period to hypocrisy or false religion. Mool Shankar (18-4)  -83), often known as Dayanand, was born in a Brahmin clan resident of the princely state of Maurvi in ​​Gujarat in 1824. His father, himself a great scholar of the Vedas, taught him Vedic poetry, Nyaya-darshan, etc.  Dayanand’s curiosity forced him to do yoga etc. and he left home. For 15 years .  In 1860, he reached Mathura and received from Swami Virjanand ji the pure meaning of the Vedas and deep reverence for the Vedic religion.  In 1863, he launched the “hypocrisy Khandini Patka” to refute false religions. In 1875 he founded the Arya Samaj Lahore in Bombay, after which the Arya Samaj became more publicized. Swami Dayanand aimed to give India religious, social and national  Be united as one. He wished that Arya Dharma should be the same religion of the country. He saw many errors in contemporary Hinduism and society. He did lifeless work in both these areas. He worshiped idol in religious area.  Polytheism, Avatarism, Pashubali, Shraddha, Jatra, Mantra and false rituals were not accepted. He considered the Vedas to be divine knowledge and accepted literature up to the Upanishad period. The rest, of particular Puranas, including the beliefs written above.  It is found that he considered a set of concocted stories. But in the case of Vedas too, his argument was that the language of Vedas is very ancient. Hence, its commentaries which are not all written from time to time. Use your intelligence and  The meaning of Vedic mantras is tested by logic  Try and then adopt.  He was a Sanskrit scholar and went from place to place with the fundamentalists and proved that the above beliefs have no basis in the Vedas.  He described this philosophy as contrary to pure Vedic tradition, to monotheism, that the world is a hallucination, that the soul is part of God, everything is false except that escaping from the world is the purpose of life.  According to him, nature is true, soul is truth and mind and God is truth and bliss.  All three are eternal and infinite.  According to him every person should attain salvation by conducting according to eternal human religion (season).  Thus he is the creator of his own destiny, not just causal monism.  No one can escape the consequences.  Everyone has to work towards the salvation of the world and move towards salvation, that is, do not sit with your hand on your hands, become active and live your life.  Swamiji adopted this same education years after his death by hard-working people like Shri Arvind Ghosh and praised him.  His slogan or “go back to the Vedas” and not to the Vedic period.  Dayanand also challenged the claim of supremacy in the religious and social aspect of the Brahmin priesthood.  He mocked the Brahmin’s statement that he was an intermediary between the rest of the munis and God.  According to him, every person has the right to read the Veda and interpret it according to his reasoning.  In the social sphere, he attacked the untouchables, birth caste, child marriage and other evils.  He was the first reformer in the social history of India who agitated for the Shudras and women to read the Vedas and receive higher education, hold Yajnopavitas and get equal rights of upper castes and men from all other sides.  But probably they did most of the work to improve the condition of women.  According to him, sons and daughters are the same.  Similarly, child marriage, eternal legalism, accepting the widow as hay, purdah, dowry, multi-marriage, prostitution, devadasis etc. were not any social evils that they accepted.  They believed in the Varna system not by birth, that is, according to occupation, a person can be a Brahmin, a Kshatriya, a Vaishya and a Shudra, but these four varnas are the same and there are no untouchables.  Like this


Swami Dayanand awakened the spirit of equality in Hindu society that we see today in our Constitution.  Possibly none of the fundamental, far-reaching, comprehensive and influential reformers in Hinduism and society have ever happened in the history of India.  All his views are described in his famous book ‘Satyarth Prakash’.  The Brahmasamaj and theosophical assembly were very pleasing to those who read Western science.  The main feature of Swami Dayanand’s education was that he did not take anything in western philosophy, education and society.  He merely said that nothing beyond the Vedas and Upanishads and the customs, rituals, rituals or social evils not allowed in the Veda are all sacrosanct.  Till that time, Christians, Muslims, Sikh missionaries used to ridicule the evils and false beliefs of Hinduism.  Swami Dayanand also took out errors in his religions and defeated ancient fundamentalists and other evangelists from place to place.


As a result, followers of Hinduism will inculcate a new sense of self-confidence, introspection and self-purification (that is, removing false traditions from Hinduism).  Some people have termed these ideas as a symbol of intolerance and limited feeling but in fact Dayanand’s universality and liberal spirit was perfectly compatible with the liberal traditions of ancient Hinduism.  Although the external form of this movement re-established Vedic traditions, in fact the Arya Samaj adopted modern knowledge and logic.  The work of Arya Samaj saw maximum impact in the field of education and social reform and service.  Among other things that were emphasized in the social ideas of the Arya Samaj were the paternity of one God and brotherhood of all human beings, equality of men and women, complete justice and fairness between men and castes and a sense of love and charity.  The Arya Samaj laid great emphasis on the spread of education and knowledge.  His followers did special work to end the non-proliferation and darkness of learning.  After his death, the Dayanand Anglo Vedic Institutions started in 1886 soon spread to every corner of the country.  Swamiji’s followers were not conservative and reactionary.  They also adopted English language and knowledge, ie, the best coordination of oriental and western knowledge is found in them.  These educational institutions were also used by the Arya Samaj as a means of getting out of stereotypes and false beliefs.  In 1892-93, the Arya Samaj became two parties.  One was opposed to Western education.  He established a gurukula in Haridwar in 1902 where ancient Vedic education was imparted by ancient method and on the same pattern Gurukuls were built in many other places.  The principles and rules of the Arya Samaj were first formed in Bombay.  Again they were edited and definitively edited in Lahore in 1877 and were not converted till date.  These are the rules


(i) All truth and knowledge are known by knowledge, the basic origin of all is God.  (ii) Ishwar Sachchidanand Swarup is formless, omnipotent, judicious, merciful, unborn, infinite, nirvikar, eternal, anupam, sarvadhara, sarveshvara, omnipresent, omniscient, ajar, immortal, abhaya, eternal, pious and sanity.  Should only worship him.  (iii) Veda is the book of all true disciplines.  Reading and listening to the reading of Veda is the supreme religion of all Aryans.  (iv) Must always be willing to accept the truth and discard the untruth.  (v) All work should be done according to religion i.e. truth and untruth.  (vi) To benefit the world is the main objective of the Arya Samaj i.e. to progress physically, spiritually and socially.  (vii) Preferably, it should be kept as per the requirements.  (viii) Avidya should be destroyed and knowledge should be increased.  (ix) Everyone should not be satisfied in his own progress, but everyone should understand his own progress.  (x) All human beings should be free to keep social welfare rules, and in every beneficial rule, everyone is free.  Not only this, the Arya Samaj also started the purification movement under which people tried to bring people from other religions to Hinduism.  Apart from this, about 60 thousand Malkane Rajputs and Hindus who were forced into Muslims in the days of Mopala Rebellion (1923) or Partition of India in 1947, were given an opportunity to return to Hinduism.  Swadeshi was important in Swami Dayanand’s economic ideas.  In the political field, he used to say that the worst of the country is worse than the best of the foreign state, that is, because of his education, his followers were filled with indigenous and patriotic feelings and they were pioneers in the Indian national movement.


Valentin Shirol has called the Arya Samaj the true “father of Indian unrest”. Mahatma Hanraj, Pandit Gurudutt, Lala Lajpat Rai and Swami Shraddhanand were among its distinguished activists. The promotion of Arya Samaj especially in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar  4. Ramakrishna Movement: The didactic rationalism of the Brahmo Samaj was not much loved by many. Ramakrishna (1834-86) was a temple priest in a small colony in Calcutta. He had full faith in Indian thought and culture but he  He believed all religions to be true. According to him, Krishna, Hari, Rama, Jesus, Allah are all different names of one God. He believed in idol worship and considered it as a means of attaining eternal, almighty God.  But he placed more emphasis on the soul than on signs and rituals. He believed in selfless and exclusive devotion to God to attain God. He performed all three types of tantric, Vaishnava and Advaita cultivation and, finally, “Nirvikalpa Samadhi”  Attained status and  B. Loka started saying Paramahamsa.  But the credit for realizing the interpretation of his teachings was given to Swami Vivekananda (1862–1902), whose first name was Narendranath Dutt.  He described this teaching in simple language.  Swami Vivekananda emerged as the propagator of this new Hindu religion.  He attended the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago in 1833 and greatly influenced the people through his scholarly deliberations.  The essence of his speech was that we have to strike a healthy balance between materialism and spiritualism.  He is one for all the world

216 Social Change in India: Condition and direction envisaged a culture in which such a harmonious amalgamation of materialism of the western and spiritualism of the east would be possible which would give happiness to the whole world.  Swamiji strongly condemned this aspect of Hinduism ‘Don’t touch me’.  According to him Hinduism was now confined to food and drink only.  He was deeply unhappy with the silence of religion over exploitation by the poor.  According to him, telling a hungry person about religion is an insult to God and humanity.  Once he said that I consider that person as Mahatma, I consider every person who has received education and knowledge at their expense and now does not even care about them at all.  Therefore, according to him, worship of God can be done only by serving humanity.  He therefore gave Hinduism a new social purpose.  Vivekananda did not give any political message.  But still, through his writings and speeches, he instilled in the new generation a new spirit of self-sacrifice in his past and new faith in Indian culture and a new confidence in the future of India.  He was a staunch patriot.  Subhash Bose once said, “As far as Bengal is concerned, we can call Vivekananda the ‘spiritual father’ of the modern national movement.” His established Ramakrishna Mission soon became the center of public service and social reform.  And at this time they are running many charitable dispensaries, hospitals, schools etc. in all areas of the country and do a lot of work in the field of public service in the national plight.  5. Theosophical Assembly: Theosophical Society was started by Western scholars who were greatly influenced by Indian culture and ideas.  In 1875, Madame H.D.  P.  Blavatsky (1831 91), a German-Russian woman, laid the foundation of this society in America.  Tantar Col M.  s .  Olcott (1832–97) also met him.  In 1882, he established the main office of his society in Adyar, a township near Madras Nagar.  The followers of this society used to try to gain divine knowledge, spiritual ecstasy and intuition.  They believed in rebirth and karma and were inspired by the philosophy of Sankhya and Upanishads, their belief in spiritual brotherhood.  This movement also became part of the Hindu Renaissance.  Sikh Reform Movement: The developing and rational ideas of the West also influenced the Sikh sect.  Singh Sabha movement started in Amritsar.  Another institution attached to it was Mukh Khalsa Diwan.  These institutions established many gurdwaras and opened schools and colleges in Punjab.  A small movement of the Singh Sabha was ‘Akali Lehar’.  This wave was mainly against the corrupt interests of big gurdwaras who considered these gurdwaras as ancestral property.  These values ​​were supported by the government.  In 1921, the Akalis started the Non-Cooperative Non-Cooperation Satyagraha Movement against these Mahants for the salvation of Gurdwaras.  The government went on a repressive cycle but the government had to bow down before Lokmat and the Sikh Gurdwara Act was passed in 1922 which was amended in 1925.  Parsi Reform Movement: Parsis too could not escape this new reformist environment.  In 1851, some English-educated Zoroastrians constituted the Released Majdayasanan Sabha aimed at the Zoroastrians



Nawab Abdul Latif: Reform in Muslims – The movement started by Nawab Abdul Latif in Bengal.  He founded the Mohammedan Literary Society in Calcutta in 1863 AD.  The purpose of this institution was to spread English language and modern science education among Muslims.  This institution established many educational institutions in Bengal.  This institution has contributed significantly in the field of promotion of education among Muslims in Bengal.  Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and Aligarh Movement: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan had the most prominent role in the Muslim reform movement.  He is often known as Sir Syed.  After the rebellion of 1857, his attention was drawn towards the backward Muslim society.  He was a supporter of British rule.  He was of the firm belief that only the establishment of good relations between the British and the Muslims can lead to the resurgence of Muslim society and the condition of Muslims can improve.  It made a great effort to end the staunch hostility of the British, to provide modern education to the Muslims and to make them eligible for government jobs and in this they also got very far success.  He was opposed to pauradapatha, polygamy etc. and was a supporter of western education, women education and traveling abroad.  He emphasized more on the simplicity of Islam and interpreted it as a way of strengthening humanism.  There was a complete lack of scientific texts in Urdu.  Therefore, Sir Sanyad Ahmad founded the Scientific Society for the translation and publication of scientific texts into Urdu in 1862, so that the Muslim public can know about modern science.  In 1857, he went to England and after returning from there established Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later converted into Aligarh Muslim University.  Muslims of modern ideology got education here.  This college had many European professors.  There Arabic Arabic was taught as optional subjects only.  Gradually, this university became the starting center for the most important trends in the social and cultural life of Muslims.  This is the reason why the movement which Sir Syed Ahmad initiated was known as Aligarh Movement.  Sir Syed Ahmed viewed any political movement with a view of mistrust.  Even he opposed the Indian National Congress.  He laid equal emphasis on the cooperation of Muslims with the British government.  He considered education and only education as the means of national progress.  Deoband movement: This movement was started by some different (Muslim theologians) and their followers who fought British rule in 1857 AD.  It belongs to Deoband near Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh, which was the center of religious education.  Here students were taught to love political freedom.  At the time Sir Syed Ahmed advised Muslims to stay away from Congress and join the pro-government Patriotak Association, at the same time, about 100 Ulmas from the country – abroad belonging to Deoband movement – issued a fatwa for Muslims not to join this association.  And was allowed to join the Congress.  Thus, this movement contributed greatly to India’s freedom struggle.  Badruddin Tyabji: Badruddin Tyabji was a great national leader.  He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress.  He was very interested in social reform.  They are for the freedom of women –  were pro-social reform movement in India.  He vehemently opposed the prevalent evils of Muslims like child marriage, polygamy, pardapatha etc. and tried to remove them.  .. Current status of reform movement and women: Since the beginning of the 19th century, ideological change had started in Indian society.  Some anxious people started thinking that the widow has been denied the right to remarry, but the man himself can marry the second and third woman even though the first wife is alive.


No matter how cruel, malicious and misogynistic the husband is, he is revered for the wife, the deity is equal.  No matter how the husband leads a rough life, the wife should follow the husband.  After the death of the husband, the woman was forced to burn in the living pyre and the man was ordered to have a second marriage shortly after the death of the wife and that too in the name of religion, religious actions were performed.  This double standard of morality in Hindu society continued from the time of Manu till the 1950s.  The social-reformers considered such a situation unfair and unjust, opposed it and tried to change it.  Before getting information about the efforts made by social reformers and leaders to improve the condition of women, it is necessary to know that mostly women belonging to upper castes are suffering from disabilities.  The 19th century saw changes in the views and attitudes of progressive people for a variety of reasons.  Influenced by western liberal views, these people started believing in the freedom and rights of the person.  Rajaram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj and due to his efforts, in 1829, the practice of Sati was discontinued by law.  The Brahmo Samaj proposed the principle of freedom of man and woman and tried the practice of widow-remarriage.  Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj.  You have tried to stop child-marriages, end the purdah and encourage female education.  Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar opposed multi-wife marriage and supported widow-remarriage.  As a result of your untiring efforts, the “Widow Remarriage Act” was passed in 1856.  The Act was passed, but it took nearly a hundred years for people’s attitudes towards widows to change.  The “Special Marriage Act” was passed in 1872 due to the efforts of Keshav Chandra Sen, by which the marriage age of girls was fourteen years, inter-caste marriage and widow remarriage made legal recognition and the practice of one marriage.


By law in 1874  The field of women’s wealth was expanded and her right over the money earned by the woman was accepted. In the same century, Bahram Ji Malabari’s efforts led to a legal ban on the marriage of a girl under the age of 12. 19th century  Education for girls was also made in the school. For the last nearly 2000 years, except for women of some higher varnas, the rest were deprived of facilities. Where in the middle of the 19th century there was no system for education of women in the beginning of the century.  There, there were a large number of primary schools started in which thousands of girls started getting education. At the same time many women became teachers, nurses and doctors after getting vocational education. During this period of a century in Indian society and  There was a radical change.  Where women education was not there at the beginning of the 19th century, they were immersed in ignorance.were there, at the end of this century, millions of girls started getting education in schools and colleges.  In the same century, many female women tried to improve the status of women.  Ramabai was a great scholar in Sanskrit.  He toured various parts of the country and made people aware of the social injustice done to women.  She started Arya Mahila Samaj where in 1982, 300 women were getting education.  In 1989, made education arrangements for educated women and widows for widows and started Poona Seva Sadan and Nursing Medical Association.


At the same time, Madel Cama, Torudatta and Swarnakumari Devi also tried to bring awareness among women.  In the last years of the 19th century, Swami Vivekananda gave special inspiration to the people to upgrade the status of women.  You said, “The nation and the nation that did not honor women, could never become great nor could they ever become in the future.” You told that there is another equal soul in all beings.  On this basis, you emphasized that women should be treated like men.  You said that women should be able to solve their problems on their own through independent thinking through education.  In 1871 Annie Besant was elected President of the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress.  Under your leadership, equality of women and men was accepted in this session with respect to the right to vote and stand for election.  Mahatma Gandhi inspired women to join his political movements.  You were a full supporter of the equality of women and men.  You said that social inequality and social injustice were not recognized anywhere in the ancient religious associations, women should have complete freedom like men.  Gandhiji bitterly criticized child marriage as immoral and inhuman and supported widow-remarriage.  It is clear from the North East that social reformers and leaders made successful efforts to improve the status of women and to give them proper place in the society.  As a result of various efforts made in the 19th century, there was a revival in women.  The consciousness started awakening in them and they started getting ready to do something for their development.  At the beginning of the 20th century, a strong women’s movement was launched to end all forms of disabilities to women and to give them an advanced place in society.  Three Western women named Margaret Noble, (Mr. Nivedita), Annie Besant and Margaret Kushanam gave significant yoga in the women’s movement in India.  In 1917, the Indian Women’s Committee was established in Madras.  At the same time, “All India Women’s Conference” was formed in the country with the efforts of women political rights and education and enlightened women, whose first session was held in Poona in 1927.  This institution demanded a government to provide equal rights to women and remove their disabilities.  Dissemination of women education was the main objective of this institution and it was with this vision that in 1932, “Lady Irwin College” was established in Delhi.  In the same year, this institution demanded an equal adult franchise for women and men.  This organization campaigned and struggled to stop child marriages, to end multiple marriages, to stop more expenses in marriages and to give women equal property rights as men.  In addition to this organization, the University Women’s Association,


Social reform movement in India through Indian Christian Mahila Mandal and Kasturba Gandhi National Monument Trust, etc., are doing commendable work to bring awareness in women, remove their disabilities and to help them in improving the situation.  As a result of the reform movement and the efforts of women’s organizations, equal rights have been given to women in the constitution, no discrimination on the basis of gender has been accepted.  After independence, many social enactments have been passed in the country, which have played an important role in removing the disabilities of women, empowering them like men and improving their condition.  The “Hindu Marriage Act, 1955” provides for judicial separation and marriage separation under special circumstances and has made a marriage practice mandatory for all Hindus.  By “Hindu successor, 1956”, the daughters’ property has been given the right to property in the same way as the son.  “The Hindu is considered as the first natural guardian of the property of the minor child on the death of the father by the Hindu Minorities and Protection Act, 1956”. “Widows by the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956”  Adoption rights have been given for the use of. The Act also provides both men and women the right to receive maintenance. The “Prevention of Immoral Trafficking of Women and Girls Act”, passed in 1956, prohibits prostitution.  Efforts have been made.


The Dowry Prohibition Act was also enacted in 1961. To prevent the practice of dowry. There are no longer any legal hurdles in the path of widow marriage, inter-caste marriage and love marriage. “Abortion” now for the purpose of family planning  “Feticide” shall not be deemed.  The minimum age of marriage is also 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys.  Through all these law and order, efforts have been made to remove all the disabilities of women.  Marriage of a girl at an early age, her right in father’s property, widow’s share in husband’s property, permission to remarry, etc. are some of the legal changes that will bring revolutionary changes in Hindu life.  Hindu society is gradually assimilating these legal changes.  In the case of women, education facilities have given special yoga.  Education gives women the confidence to be self-confident, capable of economic self-reliance and to change the traditional situation.  Education is an important means of bringing changes in people’s thoughts and then their attitudes and actions.  Dr. Pannikar states that neither Hindus nor traditions discourage education in women.  From the earliest times of Indian history, we have known women who have been thinkers, poets and students, but education was not widely spread here.  Education was limited in Brahmins and sometimes in royal houses.  Today, there is equal spread of female education in all classes.  Dr. Parsar has said sarcastically that if Hindus were willing to protect their rotten street institutions, they should have kept them in ignorance of their women, insisting on the principle of husband and god as an invariant law  was supposed .

Even against the wishes of the orthodox people, the people of the middle class started educating their girls, Western education began to spread in the country.  Now educated Indian women cannot be seduced to serve and worship impure, cruel and immoral husbands as Gods or husband deities.  In the last few years, there has been amazing progress in women’s education in India.  Where 0.60% of women were educated in 1901, now their percentage is 24.88.  The percentage of literacy of males in the proportion of females did not increase as fast.


According to 1971 statistics, the total percentage of education in the country was 19.35.  Now this percentage increased to 36.17 in 1981.  In 1971, the percentage of education was 39.49 and that of women was only 8.26.  According to the 1981 census data, this percentage has now increased to about 46 for men and 24 for women, according to 1991 data, the literacy percentage of women has increased to 38.48 while the percentage of men is 55.  As far as vocational education is concerned, women have also made considerable progress.  Increasing female education is definitely proving helpful in ridding society from many social evils.  Today, child marriages are often coming to an end, the curtain practice has also almost ended.  Curtain customs are still found somewhere in rural areas.  The curtain is practiced by the illiterate Muslim women of the lower class.  Dr.  Looking at the widespread impact of education in the country, Pannikar wrote, “The education of women and their political awakening has intensified the ax with which it is possible to clean the wild bushes of Hindu social life.”  Education has made women especially aware of their rights and has helped change their thoughts.  It is clear that women education is very important for the all round development of life.  Female education has helped to relax the bonds of caste and to rid man from the influence of orthodox ideas.  Whether human beings want it or not, some social powers have been bringing changes in institutions and social processes.


Change occurs when circumstances change, whether it is considered appropriate or improper, to draw attention to the analysis of the forces that bring sociological change.  The industrialization and modernization that has been going on for the last few years has contributed to changing the status of women and has played an important role in bringing about a change that is independent of human desire.  Economic utility is found to the woman in the farming family.  However, due to industrialization and development of market economy, many economic and other tasks undertaken by the family are being done by specialized institutions.  As a result, the economic value of the woman in the family decreased, she became financially dependent on the man.  Competitive capitalist economic system inspired women and men to work in various fields outside the home.  The attraction of new consumption items, the aspiration of higher living standards and the increasing values ​​of things, forced or forced many middle class women to work.  Economically increasing freedom of women has helped women to change the situation and awaken self confidence in them.  About 75-80 percent of the country’s women residing in rural areas have been helping in economic activities in one way or the other.  Middle and upper class women have generally been parasitic and economically dependent on men.  But currently in position

The social reform movement in India has undergone considerable change.  Industrialization allowed women to work in factories.  In modern times, educated women of middle families are working more and more in offices, industries, educational institutions, hospitals, social welfare centers etc.  Some time ago, the women who had covered themselves in the curtain, the houses were closed in the boundary wall.  She has started working in teacher, nurse, doctor, clerk, stenographer, Viketri, Swagatika and many other situations.  In the last few years, there has been a special increase in job facilities for women in the government and private sectors.  The status of women earning a livelihood is certainly different from the traditional status of women, whose field of work is still limited to household chores and which is economically dependent on men even today.


The changed situation of women working in the job is encouraging other women to get involved in economic activities in one way or the other and to apply themselves in a profession.  Presently the political consciousness of women has increased and many women are taking active part in politics.  In 1926, women started entering the legislatures and in the 1937 elections, 42 women had won.  In the election of Constituent Assembly in 1946, women like Durgabai, Renukaraya, Sarojini Naidu and Hansa Mehta succeeded.  .  In the year 1952, there were 42 women members in Parliament, 23 in Lok Sabha and 19 in Rajya Sabha.  In the same year the number of women in the state legislatures was 58.  In 1957, 50 women became members of Parliament, 27 of the Lok Sabha and 23 of the Rajya Sabha.  343 women contested for state legislatures, 195 of which were successful.  In 1962 and 1967, the number of women in Parliament was 54 and 52 respectively, 36 and 31 respectively in Lok Sabha and 18 and 211 in Rajya Sabha in 1971, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996, 1998 and 1999 and 2004 respectively.  It is clear from the general elections of Lok Sabha that the tendency and political consciousness among women to exercise their vote freely is increasing.  In order to play an active role in the political functioning of women, reservation of 33 percent seats in the Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha and state assemblies is being considered.  Dr .  Pannekar has said, ‘When independence was attained, the place the women gained in the political and social life of India, the outside world was shocked because she was used to thinking that Hindu women were backward, uneducated  And there is a processive social system.  The significance of the great change that took place in India was that Indian women gained fame as governors, cabinet level matris and ambassadors.  The most important thing is that in 1966, Mrs. Indira Gandhi was elected the leader of the party and she held the position of Prime Minister of a large nation like India.

The political consciousness of women, the modern ideas of democracy and equality in the country have contributed a lot to change and improve the position of men towards women.  Today, there has been a lot of social awareness among women.  Now they do not keep themselves locked in the walls of the house folded in the curtain.  Apathy towards caste rules is also found in modern women, they do not care much about such restrictions.  Nowadays inter-caste marriages are also happening, the number of love marriages and late marriages is also increasing.  Today, Indian women are also coming forward in the social field.  Now they also participate in social welfare


The social reform movement in India is to break the defective cycle of capability.  It would not be appropriate to say that despite the planned economic development of the last nearly 40 years, there was no commendable effort by the social planners to improve the social status of the rural women.  If women in rural areas are provided with informal education facilities in relation to the production of goods, their purchase, selling, nutrition, hygiene and health, cooking and properly caring for children, then the situation of women can be improved there.  is .  In order to improve the status of working women, it is necessary to change the attitude of men towards child care and home work which is considered as ‘women’s work’.  It is clear from various studies that working women face difficulty in fulfilling their professional responsibilities as well as family responsibilities.  Dr .  Promila Kapoor said that the tendency of husbands to act on the basis of the belief that homework and child care is the wife’s job is one of the most important factors of marital discord.  Looking at the current situation, it can be said that in the near future, there will be pressure on Indian husbands to support their working wives in homework and child care, the report of the Committee on the Status of Women in India states that  Personal development is the absolute lack of facts on important social and economic movements affecting the patterns of social behavior.  Therefore, with a view to improving the condition of Indian women, it is necessary to obtain authentic information through field studies about various aspects related to the lives of women in rural and urban areas.  ***


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