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The word ‘bureaucracy’ is a Hindi variation of the English language word ‘bureaucracy’ which literally means a system of official class or a combination of intellectually related persons. In other words, it is a formal organization in which individuals hold different positions based on positions and are intellectually bound to each other. Used to be for the government ruled by.

Bureaucracy is related to the first type of authority (rational legal authority). This is not a new system. In fact, its origin and development took place at the same time when huge empires were established in ancient times. To maintain the vast empires and to keep a hold on all areas of administration, the appointments of officials, their positions,

Organization method of clear division and determination of responsibilities and rights developed. world

There is a clear description of bureaucracy in the famous Kautilya’s Arthashastra. But the form in which we see bureaucracy today, it developed along with industrialization. Evidence of the existence of bureaucracy has been found in ancient Egypt and Rome.

But this ancient bureaucratic paternalistic administration, where the ruler was based on the personal thoughts and feelings of the administrator? Modern bureaucracy is a completely impersonal system and the ideas of capitalism and democracy have made bureaucracy an indispensable form of organization.

is linked to. As a result, some scholars (such as Gunnar Myrdal) have criticized its massive growth as a misuse of public funds to serve the purposes of a select few. On the other hand, some scholars (eg, Reinhard Bendix) have emphasized that the growth of bureaucracy has led to an increase in human freedom. Whatever may have been the outcome of its development, today it is a fact that bureaucracy is the dominant feature of modern society. It is a major means of operating power.

In the words of Kozer and Rosenberg, ‘Staff system can be defined as a hierarchical organization that is rationally designed to coordinate the work of many individuals engaged in the pursuit of large-scale administrative tasks. According to Max Weber, bureaucracy functions as an intellectual and efficient agency in large administrative organizations of modern societies. It is an administrative system in which there are hierarchies of authority and in which trained salaried specialists have to act according to unusual concrete and clearly defined rules. Weber has defined bureaucracy in two forms:



Bureaucracy in this form is an impersonal system established by law in which persons exercise the power of office on the basis that they have formal legitimacy to issue orders within the purview of the authority of office.

Bureaucracy as an organization is a layered organization that has been intelligently designed to balance the functions of individuals who are engaged in broad-level administrative responsibilities and organizational goals.

In this way, for Weber, bureaucracy is an impersonal system of formal and hierarchical positions established by law to fulfill administrative duties and achieve organizational goals.


is established. Therefore, bureaucracy is a special form or system of organization or administration. Weber has clearly written that the fundamental meaning of bureaucratic administration is to control on the basis of knowledge. This characteristic of it makes it uniquely intellectual.

The credit for using the concept of bureaucracy in sociology is mainly given to Max Weber who tried to explain bureaucracy as an ideal model. Apart from this, scholars like Mosca, Robert K. Merton, Peter M. Blau and Etzie Oney etc. have also presented their views about the concept and theory of bureaucracy.



In the discussion of political sociology, Weber’s attention was drawn towards those features of modern states which were different from paternalistic rule and feudal rule.

Were born from the defects arising. Today in most of the states of the world, governance based on constitutional authority is seen. From this point of view, Weber first clarified the conditions under which, in place of traditional and miraculous power, more importance was given to legal power and bureaucracy as its special tool. First of all, in the system of traditional and miraculous power, most of the officers related to governance started considering the taxes received in kind as their personal property. When the circulation of currency became more, then the need was felt that a reliable and working. The economic condition of the state should be strengthened by developing an efficient bureaucracy. Apart from this, the establishment of internal peace from the state

To fulfill social services and also for technological development, it has become necessary that the governance should be run through those people who are more loyal to the state and the law rather than being devotees of any particular person or leader.
To fulfill social services and also for technological development, it has become necessary that the governance should be run through those people who are more loyal to the state and the law rather than being devotees of any particular person or leader.
To fulfill social services and also for technological development, it has become necessary that the governance should be run through those people who are more loyal towards the state and the law than being devotees of any particular person or leader.

Legal authority was also felt more useful in removing social and economic inequalities in the state. Bureaucracy is a special tool of legal authority, so to understand the real nature of legal authority, Weber analyzed the nature of bureaucracy and its characteristics. In this analysis, Weber specially clarified the four aspects of bureaucracy. , , 1) Historical reasons for the development of bureaucracy; 2) The effect of legal rule in the functioning of bureaucracy; 3) The nature of bureaucracy as compared to the system of paternal rule; and 4) Important features and consequences of bureaucracy in the modern world. Weber’s ideas about bureaucracy can be understood more systematically by discussing these aspects. In general terms, it can be said that bureaucracy is such a stratified organization; भ्पमतंतबिपबंस वतहंदप्रण्जपवद्द्ध The purpose of which is to logically coordinate the work of many individuals to carry out large-scale administrative work. 42 If considered from this point of view, wherever the governance system based on laws; Legal authority is found where the administrative organization of bureaucracy is based on many rules or principles.

, First of all, under a bureaucracy, government work is done on the basis of continuity. It means that behind every work there are some special objectives and policies which are expected to be followed by every person related to this system.

, 2) Before every work under bureaucracy. It happens according to certain rules, in which three rules are more important. First of all, any officer or employee can do each of his work impersonally. Secondly, to complete each task, some special powers are assigned to the concerned officers. Thirdly, an officer can force the public to do some work only by using some legal means. He cannot use his powers arbitrarily.

, 3) In the entire bureaucracy, the responsibilities and rights of each officer are only a part of the power of his department. Generally higher officers are given the right of inspection while the lower grade officers are expected to fulfill their tasks by insistence.

, 4) Government and personal work is one in this system. Totally different from the other. This means that an officer can use the resources of the state but in any form he cannot show his ownership over them.

, 5) No officer can use his position considering it as personal property. This means that a position cannot be sold or bequeathed to another person. To motivate the officers to perform their duties well, they do get the right to get pension and not to be removed from the post without any reason, but these rights are also not equal to property.

, 6) One of the main rules of administrative organization of bureaucracy is that work is done in written documents; These are done on the basis of Tpajjmad Qubanumdje. These documents are kept safe in the form of different files so that any old decision and its basis can be revisited whenever required.



282 social thinker thus it is clear that in bureaucracy limited use of rights by continuous fixed rules of government work, supervision of implementation of rules, impersonal way of working, distinction of office and functionary and execution of works in private form. There are key features without which statutory authority in the form of an officer cannot be maintained effectively.


Weber has explained the nature of bureaucracy on the basis of its difference from a paternalistic rule. First of all, a paternal ruler and the officers appointed by him do all the work on their own will and they want to do any work only when they are given proper reward for the sufferings arising out of the work. Secondly, under paternalistic rule, the ruler and his officials never want that their power should be bounded within a limit by certain rules. They may follow some traditional rules but such rules are only to support their freedom. Thirdly, an ancestral ruler himself decides whether he should give up his power or keep it as long as he wants. Because he himself chooses his office bearers, therefore he also inspects their works by looking at their devotion towards him and interest in work. Fourthly, in paternalistic rule, all administrative posts are attached to the will of the ruler and all officials are considered as personal servants of the ruler. Fifth, in such a regime, the expenditure on officers and administration is given from the personal fund of the ruler. Lastly, a government act is not done in writing but is done orally keeping in mind the wishes of the ruler. under statutory authority

The nature of bureaucracy is completely different from the above mentioned characteristics of paternal rule. First of all, the position of bureaucratic officers and the conduct of their work is influenced by an administrative organization and not by the will of any individual. Secondly, under this, where emphasis is laid on implementing many written rules, the appointment of officers is also done under some special rules. Thirdly, once a person is appointed as an officer, he is bound to follow the rules impersonally, even if the observance of the rules is to the detriment of the person or organization that appoints him. For example, the judges appointed by the government can give any order against the government to follow the rules. Fourth, full time officers are appointed to maintain the continuity of administrative work. Even after not getting personal satisfaction from their work, they are required to work under a certain system.



Fifthly, in order to enable an officer to perform his duties properly, his efficiency is not measured by the profit earned by him. For this reason, the salary of any employee is not given from his departmental revenue but from a separate government fund. All these characteristics explain the difference between traditional authority in the form of paternal rule and legal authority in the form of bureaucracy.

After considering these features of administrative organization under legal authority, Weber has also thrown light on the important features and consequences of bureaucracy in the modern world. These can be briefly explained as under:


, First of all, A. Weber states that the organization of bureaucracy is superior to other organizations in the same way as the production done by machine is superior to the production done by hand. For example, the regularity of the work, the absence of any kind of ambiguity, the work being done in writing and continuously, the work. Uniformity in operation, primacy of rules over individuals and least possibility of differences are some special advantages of bureaucracy. Even after this, this advantage is comparative because bureaucracy is like an automatic machine in which personal skill is not of much importance. In Weber’s words, “The present judge is like a vending machine in which the evidence of the trial is put in the same price and the decision comes out as the product.” This means that if a person in the bureaucracy knows the rules, then he can tell any decision in advance. Because of the rule of law in this system, a goal-oriented attitude is often separated from practicality. In ancient times, a ruler was influenced by sympathy, circumstance, gratitude and past loyalty etc. to take any decision, but bureaucracy being impersonal, is not influenced by any kind of love, hatred or any other personal feeling. In fact, these conditions are the result of rationality and impersonality of bureaucracy.


, 2) The second characteristic of modern bureaucracy is ‘the tendency to monopolize the means of administration’. Weber used this term of Marx because Weber wanted to make it clear that this process of monopoly is not only found in the economic field but also in government, military, political parties, university and all big. There is a tendency of monopoly in large organizations. It means that in the statutory authority like . As the size of an organization increases, the resources to run it are snatched from the hands of free individuals and their authority is handed over to a few individuals who rule. 47 for example when the larger . When the tools of production were taken over by big business organizations, then the rights of artisans were snatched; When big laboratories and libraries were established, the importance of individual scholars doing research decreased. It is clear from this that the bureaucracy takes more interest in the monopoly of rights than giving importance to the decentralization of rights.


, 3) The third feature of bureaucracy is to reduce the social and economic inequalities between different sections of the society. This means that with the development of bureaucracy the privileges of rich and elite people are abolished. This thing can again be understood by comparing the bureaucracy with the paternal government. In a paternalistic regime, government work is usually performed by those people who are financially prosperous or have got more prestige in the society in one way or the other. Such people are not experts in their work but look at the work of administration as a hobby or a pleasurable occupation. As a result of this, they are also given opportunities to get financial benefits through their position. Bureaucracy consists of those people who are experts in their field and consider it necessary to give their full time to administration. All people are equal in their eyes to implement the rules. An officer of the bureaucracy may be a member of any economic class of the society.

And traditionally it is not necessary for his family to be prestigious. From this point of view bureaucracy can be said to be such a rule implemented by experts in which social and economic inequalities are minimized.


, 4) The last important goal of bureaucracy is to implement a stable system of power relations. Officers of elite families related to paternal rule not only do administrative work with a sense of pleasure and glory, but it is not necessary to have a permanent relationship of the officer with such a rule. On the contrary, under a bureaucracy, the entire social and economic existence of an officer is merged with the administration. For this reason, the more cooperation he gets from other lesser charis, the more successful he is in his work. This system is also permanent because the people having power from it can neither end it nor can they bring any change in the rules by personal will. The current bureaucracy is operated by those experts who acquire qualification in a particular field after receiving a long training for their work. This process of training and specialization also increases the stability of bureaucracy. It is clear from the appropriate discussion that in order to maintain a legal authority, Waver considers bureaucracy as a permanent and necessary feature of administration. In this whole discussion, Weber’s views are different from those anarchists and socialists who believe that bureaucracy is not only unnecessary for administration in an ideal society but also hinders the establishment of a just social order. Weber firmly believed that if it is necessary to maintain legal authority in the society, then it can be made effective only through bureaucracy. If a system promises to bring any kind of reform without bureaucracy, then such reform will definitely be more impractical and exploitative.

The concept of bureaucracy can be better understood by its following characteristics:

In bureaucracy, the work of officials is governed by impersonal rules and stability and continuity are found in these rules. Bureaucracy can be said to be an organization in which more importance is given to the rules attached to posts than to individuals. Due to the observance of these rules equally by all the officials, stability remains in the bureaucratic organization.

In bureaucracy, the area of authority and responsibilities of each officer is limited. In fact, division of labor is found in bureaucracy on the basis of work efficiency and efficiency. In which the work area of each member is clearly defined.

Bureaucracy can be said to be a layered organization of functions

That is, in this, the various posts are organized in the order of inferiority, but from inferiority

There is an exemption to appeal towards the higher concern. If any officer has any kind of complaint then he can do so to the higher officer. Despite the stratification in the posts, these posts are closely related to each other and there is a tendency of centralization.

In bureaucracy, the work of all officials is controlled by technical rules, that is, no officer can behave arbitrarily, but he should be according to the rules.


Only work has to be done. Officers appointed to higher positions in the bureaucracy have the right to oversee the work of their lower officials. And if necessary, they can do so through the Disciplinary Committee.

In bureaucracy, officials do not hold monopoly over the means of production or administrative means, but there is a difference between them. If it is not so, then intellectuality and impartiality cannot be achieved completely in the official system.

The bureaucratic organization should be free from external pressures and restraints so that all the officials can work according to the rules within their limits. If there is an external restriction, then the process of taking the right decision can be affected and obstacles can arise in achieving the goal.

There should be no monopoly of any one person on the posts of bureaucracy and the organization should have the freedom to transfer the officers as per the requirement. Degradation of post for not following the rules and promotion for working efficiently is found in bureaucracy only for the end of monopoly.

All the rules, orders and decisions of bureaucracy are written and there is no arrangement for oral orders etc. of any kind. Every decision and order is in writing and its record is kept. This system is meant to run the bureaucracy smoothly and to make it non-partisan. On the basis of this specialty, the bureaucratic organization of some people has also been called the organization which gives rise to the tendency of red tape.

In addition to the above characteristics, appointments to posts in the bureaucracy are made either on the basis of a competitive examination or on the basis of a diploma, degree or certificate having special qualifications. Each official gets a fixed salary in lieu of his work. Like stratification in posts, there is also a stratification in the pay scale. Along with this, proper protection and termination of the office bearers in the difficulties arising in the performance of their duties.

After retirement, facilities like pension etc. can be seen in bureaucracy.

According to Max Weber, bureaucracy functions as an intellectual and efficient agency of a large administrative organization in modern society due to its above mentioned characteristics. but


According to Robert K. Merton, these characteristics of bureaucracy are the reason for its inefficiency and inadequacy because on the basis of these, a situation of tension arises in this organization. Officers remain only slaves of the rules, because their promotion is possible only by following the rules. These traits make the officials self-centered and arrogant and they do not hesitate to harm the interests of their higher or lower officials to protect their interests.

Max Weber analyzed bureaucracy from the point of view of its social consequences and also underlined the importance of bureaucracy in political development. it the following

As it contributes to the development of the society.


Bureaucracy is such a governance system that works for social leveling and bridging by removing economic and social handicaps. Appointments can be made on different posts on the basis of objective educational certificates and formal examinations. Family, lineage or economic prosperity does not affect such appointments.

It provides technical superiority to the administration. Being specified by impersonal rules increases the general credibility and credibility of bureaucratic proceedings. Under this, the works are completed with more precision, speed, economy and without unnecessary disputes.

It is essential for a democracy. According to Weber, as democracy expands, the inevitability of administrative system based on bureaucratic system also increases.

It makes possible the separation of administration and political control. In fact bureaucracy is the only machine of administrative organization which is automatic. Through this, it becomes possible that the political leadership can concentrate on the functions of legislature and policy-making. At the same time, the political leadership can also exercise control over the official system so that the officials do not indulge in arbitrariness.


It promotes the importance of education and differentiation because the requirements of bureaucracy have also affected the nature of education. The importance of diplomas, certificates and degrees etc. of universities increases for the selection of employees.



It is helpful in the rise of new intellectual, scientific and impersonal culture. In fact, based on competitive exams, neutral in human emotions specified by formal rules, office work system is developing a new cultures.

newer businesses than class develops. And the prestige of formal and written rules bound in timetable leads to the development of a well-planned lifestyle. Every step is being taken on the basis of cost and benefit analysis.

Bureaucracy encourages pooling of means of administration. As the size of bureaucratic organizations increases. As such, the means of running them are taken away from independent individuals and groups and given to the minority ruling group.

According to Max Weber, as industrialization is developing in the society and the area of public activities of the state is increasing, the need for bureaucratic organization is also increasing. According to Weber, it is church, state, army The same is true for political parties, economic organizations, even voluntary societies and clubs. No matter how much people complain about the curse of bureaucratic system, it would be an illusion to think even for a moment that administrative work can be done in any field without making officials working in offices as medium.

Mosca has explained power distribution through the concept of ruling class and Pareto through the rotation of ruling and non-ruling elite. Pareto explains that change occurs in society through the circulation of the elite. Robert Mitchell propounds the iron rule of oligarchy and explains that in every organization power is exercised by an oligarchy only.

C. Wright Mills coined the concept of ‘power elite’ in the context of America. He clarifies that in American society, a coalition develops between politicians, industrialists (capitalists) and military leadership, which is called the power elite, and this power elite takes most of the decisions politically and socially. The role of intellectuals in political changes has been explained in the later stages of this unit. The role of intellectuals emerged as an ideal example in the French Revolution. Pressure groups and interest groups play an important role in political processes. Pressure groups make various efforts to influence political decision making. The functioning of political forms and especially of democratic politics is governed by bureaucracy.


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