Noise And Air Pollution

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Noise And Air Pollution


Noise pollution:


Noise pollution is the loss of environmental quality of air by noise. noise can cause deafness physical changes

Can cause tan, lead to emotional disturbances, interfere with work, cause accidents and cause birth defects in the unborn child. Many countries have noise control laws. India too has finally woken up to this danger. However, it is difficult to stop noise pollution in India because most of us do not consider noise as a pollutant.

Air pollution consists of substances put into the air by human activity in concentrations sufficient to cause harmful effects. Air pollution is commonly called smog. The main sources of air pollution are emissions from motor vehicles, aircraft, industrial processes, pesticides, and nuclear radioactivity. The effects of air pollution can be specific or global. The global effects are atmospheric inversion, greenhouse effect, depletion

Noise is a normal feature of life and serves as an effective alarm system in the physical environment of human beings. An urban life is unthinkable without noise, in fact, we are almost always surrounded by noise. As cities grow and there are more motor vehicles, air traffic, factories and people, the noise level increases accordingly. noise is becoming a problem


increasingly severe, especially in urban areas. Noise has come to be regarded as a major urban pollutant capable of causing annoyance and hearing loss and possibly adverse physical and psychological effects. According to its magnitude, its persistence and the different sensitivity of different individuals, noise can cause temporary or permanent loss of hearing. Noise is not a very visible form of pollution. Increasingly we are being assaulted by higher and higher decibel levels leading to a concomitant increase in stress levels.


Meaning and definition of noise pollution:

Noise can be defined as an undesirable and harmful sound in the environment, the presence of which causes discomfort to humans and animals.

Noise pollution is the deterioration of the environmental quality of air by noise.

Noise can be defined as unwanted sound or sound without musical quality.

According to Arne Wesselind, it is also a sound incidental to our civilization that we may not soon have to put up with.

The loudness of sound is measured in decibels. For example, at zero decibels (dB) something is hardly heard, at 10 dB, something can just be heard, and normal conversation is possible between 35 and 60 dB. Jet aircraft cause 100 to 120 dB, and launching rockets emit about 180 decibels. The World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations has set 45 decibels (dB) as the safe level of noise for a city.

Medical authorities agree that 8 hours of daily exposure to a sound level of 85 dB is the limit that should be tolerated. Occupational Safety and Health Act noise level limits of 90 dB for eight hours, 95 dB for four hours, 100 dB for two hours, 105 dB for one hour, 110 dB for half an hour and 115 dB for one hour determines. A quarter of an hour per day. The act does not allow more than 115 dB, as sounds above that limit are considered painful.

According to the Indian Standards Institute, the acceptable noise level in an industrial area is 50-60 dB.


Sound is just a wave traveling in the air. Hence it does not accumulate in the atmosphere. But sounds, especially loud ones, affect humans. They make the environment unsuitable for human welfare.

Noise pollution means the presence of unwanted and harmful sound in the environment which harms the body and mind of individuals and animals as well. 

  Sources (causes or pollutants) of noise pollution :

The sources and causes of sounds are numerous and varied. Humans, animals, birds, leaves of trees, music from a tape recorder, or a program on the radio, or a film on television, announcements on loud-speakers, music playing and drum-beating. Festivals – all these give us excitement and enthusiasm, an active life. Gives a feeling of


A variety of factors and forces contribute to noise pollution. These factors are as follows –

  1. a) Continuous use of means of transport :


Means of transport such as cars, buses, trucks, lorries, two-wheelers, trains and aeroplanes, are in constant use, contributing to high noise levels. In highly commercial cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai vehicles especially trucks, lorries, buses and cars generate high level of noise, which is a source of noise pollution for people who live in nearby buildings on the roads . Horns of trucks, lorries and buses cause noise pollution. The running of trains is a constant source of noise pollution to people who live in buildings or accommodation close to railway platforms. Similarly, take-offs and landings of airplanes are a major source of noise pollution for people who live near airports. the more numb

The more the number of vehicles on the road, the more the number of trains on the railway tracks and the more planes in the sky, the higher the noise level.

  1. b) Sound Amplifying Devices: Sound amplifying devices including loudspeakers – used by hawkers, announcers, shopkeepers and others disturb the peace of the area and further increase the noise level.




compared to an aircraft. aircraft noise only one or

Lasts for two minutes, while the loudspeaker noise is continuous day and night simultaneously.

  1. c) Festivals and Celebrations: All Indian festivals and most of the celebrations are celebrated with high level of noise. Use of loudspeakers and beating of drums during Dussehra, Navratri, Ganesh Chaturthi and other such festivals, most indiscriminate bursting of firecrackers producing high-pitched sound during Diwali, high pitch stereophonic music during occasions of marriage and public singing religious All these of devotional songs contribute to noise pollution during festivals.
  2. d) Noise of machines in factories: In all industries some machines are operated for the purpose of production. The more machines there are, the more noise is generated there. People who work on machines in factories are constantly exposed to noise pollution. This is known as “occupational noise pollution”.
  3. e) Modern electrical and electronic gadgets:


Washing machines, air-conditioners, grinders, vacuum cleaners, ceiling fans, mixers and musical instruments such as radios, televisions, tape-recorders and music systems – all produce high levels of noise when in use. All of them have great utility, but one can reduce the sound volume from audio units by all means.

  1. f) Political events. : Whenever public meetings, demonstrations or morchas are organized, speeches are always given in high pitch and slogans are always raised on main roads at high noise level, especially during election time. Even mobile loudspeakers are used day to day for election campaign. This increases noise pollution.

Effects of noise pollution:

1) Damage to hearing and deafness: Exposure to excessive noise can cause temporary and permanent loss of hearing depending on the nature and intensity of the noise, the person’s proximity to the source, duration and frequency of exposure, and physical condition. of the person Loudness causes physical discomfort, nervousness and emotional disturbance. Noise above 85-90 decibels is perceived


Dangerous. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a tolerance limit of 45 decibels for noise level at night and 55 decibels for day time.

2) Heart disease: Chronic exposure to noise has been found to cause constriction of blood vessels in humans, which can eventually lead to heart disease. Higher incidence of heart disease has been reported in people exposed to noise in the city. Irritability, high blood pressure, emotional disturbances and nervousness are also effects of noise pollution.

Urban noise contributes to the general atmosphere of stress and tension in which city dwellers live and labor. The human body (including the fetus) reacts to noise even when the person is asleep, or when he believes that he has become accustomed to the noise. Many researchers have implied that there is a meaningful relationship between noise, hearing loss and coronary heart disease. Their arguments suggest that there are links between frequent exposure to noise levels in the modern city and increases in stress, high blood pressure and heart disease. Medical experts also believe that excessive noise can be an unpredictable triggering agent for allergies, ulcers and even mental illness.

3) Disturbance of sleep: Disturbance of sleep is a major effect of noise pollution. It has been reported that the problem of sleep disturbance reaches alarming proportions during festivals like Diwali, Navratri, Ganeshotsav etc. Noise can interfere with normal life activities, including TV and radio reception and enjoyment, rest and sleep, reading and concentrating, telephone and other personal communications, and various forms of recreation and entertainment such as outdoor barbecuing and outdoor concerts .

4) Disruption of concentration: Noise pollution invariably disturbs the concentration of a person, as a result of which he gets lost for a few moments. Noise interference with classroom activity in schools near airports has served as a catalyst in some areas to ignite community interest in the extended effects of noise.

5) Business-related costs: This includes (1) compensation claims by employees, (2) damages due to noise-induced incapacitation, and (3) costs of insulating and muffling equipment and insulating work areas. with low production, general communication difficulties and both

The increased accident rates must be included with these costs. Another obvious cost is the development and purchase of additional equipment to control occupational noise.




6) Impact on property values Noise interference in daily life reduces residential property values near the source of noise. Such properties take longer to sell as compared to similar units in less noisy areas. Transport noise causes the most severe depression of property values. However, this effect is only related to the residential value of the land, in which case its underlying value may increase for potential commercial or industrial purposes. The homeowner, however he sells it, usually can’t get a higher price because the area is zoned for residential use only.

7) Sonic Boom (Shock Wave): The flight of a supersonic aircraft can cause a shock wave, known as a sonic boom which produces a startling effect. The startle effect is more harmful than continuous noise. Son

That boom is also capable of damaging windows and building structures. It can also speed up the heart rate.

8) Risk to pregnant women: If pregnant women are regularly subjected to severe exposure to noise pollution, they run the risk of miscarriage or giving birth to still-born babies or giving birth to low birth weight babies.






Control and prevention of noise pollution:


Noise pollution can be easily controlled and prevented by the following measures:-

  1. a) Prohibition of loudspeakers near public places: Section 33 of the Bombay Police Act, 1951 empowers the Commissioner of Police to prohibit and control various types of loudspeakers in and near public places. It should be strictly implemented.
  2. b) Constitution of Noise Nuisance Inquiry Team: It has been suggested that a Noise Nuisance Inquiry Team be constituted to control unauthorized use of loudspeakers. Such squads should be empowered to impose fines, confiscate sound equipment and arrest the offender on the spot.
  3. c) Ban on sound amplifying devices: Sound amplifying devices used by hawkers, shopkeepers and others should be banned which disturb the peace and tranquility of the locality. a special cell


In fact, control of noise pollution should be made by the Mumbai Police authorities. Even the use of noisy horns by motorists should be banned.

  1. d) Ban on sale of noisy firecrackers There should be a ban on sale and use of noisy firecrackers at least in Mumbai city and bursting of noisy firecrackers between 10.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. during the day.

PM should be banned..


  1. e) Enforcement of various Acts: Various Acts already enacted for control and prevention of noise pollution like Bombay Police Act 1951, Bombay Municipal Corporation Act 1888, Motor Vehicles Act 1939, Cinematograph Act 1952 should be strictly enforced and observed . ,
  2. f) Mass movement against noise pollution:


The anti-noise pollution campaign should be made a “collective and participatory movement” involving government agencies as well as non-governmental bodies.

  1. g) Installation of silencers in machines: Silencers can be installed in various machines, automobiles and aeroplanes, which produce more noise than normal. They can also be applied to home appliances and gadgets. Even the engine design can be modified to reduce unwanted noise.
  2. h) Mass movement for noise-pollution: Finally, an anti-noise pollution movement was initiated, involving both government agencies and private bodies, to educate the public through mass media about the harmful effects of noise should go. This will go a long way in reducing noise pollution.




  Air Pollution: Introduction and Meaning


According to the report published by (WHO) World Health Organisation, United Nations Environment Programme, air pollution is the most serious threat to the lives of people living in urban areas. Health disorders caused by air pollutants depend on the intensity, duration of exposure and are determined. pollutants directly affect


Respiratory digestive nervous and cardiovascular systems. There is growing evidence that suggests a link between increased air pollution and an increase in the incidence of heart attacks.

Air pollution is one of the most common types of environmental pollution in industrial cities. Mumbai is probably the most polluted city in India.

Air pollution means the presence of either undesirable gases in the atmosphere or an excess of any one of the gases above normal proportion or the presence of both the above factors, resulting in an adverse effect on the natural quality of air, therefore, making it unbreathable. becomes ineligible. However, people are forced to continue breathing in unsuitable and impure air as they have no other option, until


s, of course, they remove sources of air pollution.

Air pollution can be described as an imbalance in the quality of the air which causes ill effects.


Causes/sources/pollutants of air pollution:

1) Air pollution due to release of toxic gases by vehicles:

A major factor contributing to ecological pollution is automobiles plying on city streets, which discharge tons of pollutants into the atmosphere (air) every day that pose a direct threat to human health, vegetation, soil and physical structures.

  1. a) Carbon monoxide: Carbon monoxide is released into the atmosphere mainly from automobile exhaust. After carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide is the most abundant pollutant that shows wide diurnal variation in the urban atmosphere. The concentration of carbon monoxide varies depending on the density of motor traffic. However, carbon monoxide is usually present in amounts much below the threshold concentration in areas where there is little traffic.


  1. b) Photo-chemical smog: Photo-chemical smog occurs when, in the presence of sunlight, nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles (and other sources such as aeroplanes) react with atmospheric oxygen, and produce ozone. Since this type of smog is produced only in sunlight, it is called

they are

photochemical smog. Photo-chemical smog hangs like a black curtain over the sky of the urban population in a city.


  1. c) Lead-bromide compounds: Lastly, lead is added to petrol to raise its octane rating so that the engine in an automobile does not knock. This leads to the formation of lead-bromide compounds which are also toxic.

2) Air pollution by smoke from locomotives in loco sheds Another source of air pollution is the huge clouds of smoke which are constantly released by railway engines in loco sheds around railway stations.

3) Air pollution by industrial pollutants :

Continuous processing in industries like chemical fertilizer plants, refineries, chemical plants, petro-chemical complexes, aluminum and cement factories and food processing units etc. are the main sources of pollutants. They discharge a variety of pollutants such as gases, smoke, dust particles, vapors and fumes mainly containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur and ammonia which pollute the atmosphere.


4) Air pollution by thermal power plants:

The use of large quantities of coal in thermal power plants releases various pollutants such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, fly ash and particulate matter, which pollute the atmosphere.


5) Air pollution due to excessive use of chemicals:

Use of highly toxic chemicals (insecticides, insecticides and herbicides) to kill locusts and pests, which destroy crops and other agricultural products and also to get rid of household insects and rodents, discharge pollutants into the atmosphere .


6) Air pollution by radioactive substances :

Radiation from nuclear power plants as well as nuclear weapons testing can cause irreparable damage. In the event of an accident, the effects of radiation from nuclear power plants are fatal. The most serious case so far is that of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (Russia) in 1986.

7) Garbage burning: In many cities and towns, garbage is being burnt instead of being disposed of. The smoke coming out of it pollutes the air.




  Effects/consequences of air pollution:



1) Air pollution causes many types of diseases:

The health of the people has deteriorated due to pollution of air, water and soil. Cough due to pollution has indeed become an integral part of life in metros. Doctors are facing increasing number of patients suffering from throat infections, chest congestion, pulmonary catarrh, headache, kidney and liver damage, mental retardation, gastro-intestinal problems, hemoglobin deficiency, anxiety, depression and unresolved mental conflicts .

2) Effects of radiation: Radiation causes many serious hazards to living beings. Most of its effect is felt on the organs of the body such as bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, intestines and lungs. It also causes disruption of chromosomes, most adversely affecting human heredity, leukemia, malignant tumors and cancer.


3) Acid rain: In recent years – due to chemical reactions, the acidity in the atmosphere has increased. This has resulted in acid rain from time to time. Acid rain kills trees and fish, reduces the growth of some agricultural crops, corrodes metals, and damages building surfaces. It can also indirectly harm the health of humans and animals.


4) Greenhouse Effect: Due to industrialization and deforestation, greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide – methane and CFCs – are accumulating above the earth’s surface. These gases do not allow the heat to go into the atmosphere. So the Earth is starting to look like a big greenhouse, with heat trapped in it. accumulation of excess

The heat is causing an increase in the global temperature. Scientists estimate that by the year 2030, the temperature of the whole world will be 3oC higher. This will have serious consequences on the climate as well as on the oceans.

The continuous release of carbon dioxide in high concentrations into the atmosphere in the absence of a similar mechanism to absorb it has led to global warming, an increase in Earth’s temperature by an average of 150 centigrade. This could lead to the melting of the polar ice caps in the future, resulting in a rise in sea level, which in turn could cause flooding of some coastal lands. Thus it will prove to be harmful for mankind as a whole.


5) Ozone Layer Depletion: The ozone layer protects the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays coming from the sun. It is feared that human activities are already affecting the ozone layer. The main chemicals responsible for this are CFCs (chlorofluoro-carbons), specifically CFC-11 and CFC-12.

In 1985, scientists first discovered a hole in the ozone layer over the South Pole and the resulting depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere. Depletion of ozone layer in the atmosphere is due to the release of chlorofluoro-carbons, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides etc. This can result in direct radiation on the living organisms from the sun’s ultra-violet rays, which can cause skin cancer. , loss of immunity and destruction of marine life on earth.











  Prevention and control/measures of air pollution:

  1. a) Creation of public awareness: First and foremost, preventive measures, especially among the urban population

Creating public awareness about the various causes, harmful consequences and preventive measures for air, water, noise and soil pollution and deforestation. Urgent need of the hour. This can be achieved through a well planned awareness program which includes public meetings, exhibitions, demonstrations, display of posters at public places, bus stops and railway stations, radio and television programmes, articles in the press, school, college and university courses . The sole purpose of enlightening (educating) the members of the general public and motivating them to take positive action in the right direction. Such public awareness programs will go a long way in preventing pollution in cities.


  1. b) Public Participation: Environmental pollution is caused by pollutants generated by some people and it is humbly tolerated and tolerated by the general public. The apathetic attitude of the general public encourages those responsible for causing environmental pollution. Therefore, active participation of people through various non-governmental organizations in anti-pollution programs like tree plantation, anti-pollution campaign, cleanliness campaign etc. will improve the environment. South Mumbai woke up on a dull Sunday (19 December 1999) to energetically champion the cause of clean air and pollution control. A rally against pollution, organized by Swachh All India Radio, evoked an enthusiastic response from a large number of residents, students and NGOs alike as they strengthened their resolve to support the anti-pollution measures initiated by the transport.

Mumbai Commissioner Mr. VM Lal Jhinnia Khajotia, Convenor of Swachh All India Radio appreciated how Mr. Lal’s “No PUC, No Petrol” campaign had caught everyone’s attention.


  1. c) Use of anti-pollution equipment: Particulate matter and gaseous pollutants released on the roads by industrial and power plants and automobiles should be controlled, screened and prevented by the use of appropriate and suitable anti-pollution equipment like cyclone collectors, washing towers. Dry System, Wet Dry System etc.


  1. d) Removal of old vehicles from the road: The number of old vehicles is increasing, especially two wheelers, three wheelers, taxis, tempos and trucks which are in use for more than 15 years. Such vehicles should be removed from the road.


  1. e) Strict implementation of various Acts: Anti-pollution Acts such as the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981, as amended in 1987 and the Environment Protection Act, 1986, which lay down the rules and regulations to be used for various products. and raw materials, and inspection of plants for prevention and control of air pollution, and Rule 115 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1989 should be strictly enforced in the public interest.


  1. f) Need for modification in engine design: Lead in fuel, which is consumed by motor engines, is the main reason for pollution. Therefore it is necessary that the manufacturers of fuel and engines should eliminate lead from the fuel and engine design should be modified accordingly to prevent environmental pollution.


  1. g) Twelve Welcome Directions of the Bombay High Court: In a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) filed by Dr. Sandeep Rane of Smoke

Affected Residents’ Forum of Chembur, Mumbai, the Bombay High Court issued the following twelve welcoming directions on 15th December, 1999.

  1. A fine of Rs 1000 is to be imposed on vehicles violating the prescribed emission norms of 65 Hardridge Smoke Units (HSU).
  2. Second time offenders will be dealt with more strictly and their registration will be suspended for 15 days.
  3. The registration of the vehicle will be canceled if pollution is found for the third time.
  4. If the vehicle is used during the period when its registration is suspended or cancelled, it will be immediately confiscated and the owner or driver will be prosecuted.




  1. Entry of offense to be made in the original registration book of the vehicle.
  2. A sticker shall be prominently affixed on the front and side screens of the offending vehicle, informing that its registration has been suspended.
  3. If such sticker is removed, the registration of the vehicle will have to be cancelled.
  4. The license of the driver of the polluting vehicle must be endorsed.
  5. Two such endorsements will lead to its suspension for one year.


  1. If four-cylinder engines are illegally replaced with three-cylinder engines of vehicles (both private and taxi), the registration of such vehicles will be canceled and will not be allowed to be used in the city.
  2. Transport Commissioner will nominate PUC centers to issue PUC certificate and if any PUC center is found to issue wrong PUC certificate then its license will be canceled immediately and action will be taken against the owner and operator of the centre.
  3. The court directed the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), Maharashtra government, Transport Commissioner, Regional Transport Authority (RTO), Commissioner of Police and Additional Commissioner of Police (Traffic) to ensure that all comply with the emission norms. , prescribed under Rule 115 of the Motor Vehicle Rules.

These directions were issued to check the increasing vehicular pollution in Mumbai Metropolitan Region and became effective from January 1, 2000.

  1. h) Other measures:


  1. Town-planning wisely

Adequate provision should be made for public parks and gardens, which should be systematically planned and well maintained.

  1. Vigorous campaign should be carried out for tree plantation and planting of small saplings, which will positively help in reducing air pollution as well as keep the environment clean, hygienic and cool.




  1. As far as possible, industrial premises should be located away from residential areas so that industrial pollutants do not affect the residents.
  2. Firecrackers should be completely banned as they emit toxic smoke.


  1. Sewage treatment plans should be completed at the earliest.


  1. Throwing garbage in the sea should be strictly dealt with.

A reputed urban environmentalist, Rashmi Mayur has laid down some do’s and don’ts as follows –

  1. a) Do not stand where there is heavy traffic.


  1. b) Do not breathe while crossing from behind a vehicle.


  1. c) Do not allow open spaces to be used as parking lots.


  1. d) Stay away from Mumbai in winter season and enjoy your clean summer in the city.
  2. e) Plant trees wherever there is open space

Ozone layer and acid rain. To control air pollution, we can separate the pollutants and dispose of them or we can convert them into harmless products.

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