Urban Transport and Water Crisis

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 Urban Transport; Water Crisis

Generally defined, a transportation system is the sum of all technical devices and organizations designed to enable persons, goods, and news to master space. At any point in a civilization’s development, its form responds to a vast range of human economic, social, cultural, political and religious needs. In turn, the transportation system has a significant impact on all human interactions, in fact, the growth of the transportation system is one of the key signs of the history of civilization.

In this automobile age, urban growth has been materially accommodated by the vertical and horizontal expansion of cities. Horizontal expansion has been made possible due to rail and road transport facilities.


The city consists of five elements – nature, man, society, shelter (house) and spheres (network of highways, railways, cables, water supply pipes, sewers, communications). City problems are dire with too many student conflicts for schools, too much sludge for sewers, too many sick for hospitals, too many crimes for police, too many chemicals to carry water, cars for highways, Too many passengers for the transport system etc. The picture of transport and traffic is unhappy in all Indian cities.

The problem of mass transportation is taking an alarming turn all over the world. The transport problems of our cities and rapidly expanding suburbs are as important as the problems of slum clearance, environmental pollution, sanitation etc. A major factor responsible for the metropolitan transport problem has been the growth of motor vehicles faster than the population growth.




Public transport is the life blood of urban arteries. The function of any urban transport system is to provide movement of people and materials. Common urban vehicles available in India are: suburban railways, tramways, motor buses, motor taxis, private cars, horse carriages, rickshaws, cycle-rickshaws and cycles.

Urban transport problems are of a different nature from rural problems. Adequate, affordable and efficient passenger services are essential to city life as people have to stay away from their place of employment. The establishment of industries on the outskirts of cities relieves congestion in the central congested areas, but brings workers from residential areas to industrial areas.

The problem of transportation has to be solved.

  Thus, better transport paves the way for movement towards decentralization of urban life which is desirable from both health and social point of view. The type of urban transport vehicle is usually determined by the nature of the service that needs to be performed. The distances to be covered are usually short while the demand for transport services is high due to the density of population. In addition, there is a demand for intensive services at certain specified times, usually during peak hours. Moreover, speed is an essential requirement of urban transport as due to the fast pace of life in cities everyone is in a hurry to reach their place of work. Rapid means of transport provide some leisure to the citizens which can be used for social, cultural and recreational activities. This also leads to expansion of markets. The citizens who use the means of transport are of moderate means, so they need the means of transport at cheap rates.

Urban transport in India is a nightmare. Its origin as a problem lies in the nature of industrialisation. Improper city layout and planning and transportation technology also contribute to aggravating conditions in modern towns and cities. A frustratingly cumbersome public transport system, chaotic traffic on major routes and unsafe roads are a recurrent sight. The main reason for this crisis

Urban population boom Rapid expansion of city limits, rise in travel levels, concentration of business and economic activity in central squares of cities, excessive emphasis on motor vehicles and hard and tertiary trained drivers.

The problem of traffic jams in cities is global and it exists in our cities as well, Railways gave mobility to the country in the early days. Then came the automobile age and many people became independent of public transport. However, the excessive population density in cities and the large increase in automobiles are creating a crisis. Planners now know that mass transit systems must be built

The backbone of urban transit. If the present traffic congestion in the cities is not resolved quickly, the question will arise whether the country born of farms is destined to die of cities.

The metropolitan mass transport problem is assuming alarming proportions all over the world. The trend from agricultural economies to urban industrialization continues, and cities in every part of the world grapple with similar problems of achieving acceptable standards of metropolitan mobility. In the words of Mr. Lewis Mumford, “Every great capital sits like a spider among its transport webs.”

Transport does not become a factor in the calculation simply because the population in a given urban center grows at a rapid rate or because the total population is large or the density is high.


Transportation, as an economic function for the movement of men and their goods, becomes a problem when the economic activities of a city are concentrated in a relatively small area (the central business district) and by that physical area of the concentrated economic area There is extremely high employability offered. The activities attract willing workers to travel to work in that area. Attracted by that high employment potential in the central business district, people are moving in a more or less uninterrupted flow from rural areas to industrial and commercial centers in search of more opportunities and a better life. As the available space around potential employment centers fills up, the distance between work and home continues to increase, resulting in increased burden on the transport system. Goods have to be carried to the central business district and back again from that district to consumer centres, resulting in a double trip, a secondary burden that can break down any complex planned efficient transport system. The stress on traffic appears to grow in geometric progression with the arithmetical increase in the population density of urban centres, the deepening of the concentration of economic activity in the central business district and the increase in distance between home and work. Man’s





Reasons for the problems of urban transport:-



Transport problems in urban centers today can be regarded as the product of a number of complex technological, social and economic changes. They are the result of technological obsolescence as well as technological progress. They are also associated with profound changes in social class structure and a growing preference for the easy romantic urban life over the quiet happy rural life. With the technological developments like development of suburban rail services, electric tramway, motor bus, motor car etc. there was heavy movement of passenger traffic. Technological obsolescence in Indian cities is characterized by the reluctance or inability of authorities to build adequate roadways, old outmoded modes of transport such as hand carts, bullock carts, men-pulled rickshaws, bicycles or motor cycles Or misuse of main roads as parking lots and lack of traffic understanding. To this must be added the most important and highly influential factor, the inability or refusal on the part of city planners, officials and politicians to imagine the dire plight of tomorrow looming as a threat today and the reluctance to dare, unorthodox but essential. make decisions and take them seriously

To implement from Ta.

The rising cost of living and the need for a man, his wife and other able-bodied family members to pursue economic activities and the change in the social status of women have led to an increase in the number of visits to the urban centre.

One of the major determinants of travel demand in the Central Business District is the number of jobs available there.

Efficiency in terms of productivity per period spent, including travel time, is low, and is set to decline further as daily commuting area increases.

The increase in long distance travel has exacerbated an already severe peak hour transport problem.

The transport problems of our cities and their rapidly expanding suburbs are as urgent as those of slums

Evacuation, sanitation etc. The inability to overcome congestion and overcome mobility barriers threatens to make large cities economic liabilities rather than assets.

check your progress –


Question 1 Discuss the reasons for the problems of urban transport.


  public transport

The expression “mass transport” indicates a system in which large volumes of passengers are carried. Thus in large cities, especially along corridors with heavy traffic demand, there is a need to adopt high capacity modes of transport. However, the choice of means of transport should be made within reasonable, practical and economic limits. Thus mass transport means any system by which passengers are carried by a fixed agency and for which the operation is restricted by a time table, fixed routes and stops.

Peak-hour congestion has to be dealt with both in the morning and in the evening. Hourly passenger carrying capacity., therefore plays an important role in the configuration of the overall transport system.

Another important aspect of urban transport planning is that town and transport planning should go hand in hand and the overall land use plan should be linked to its effects on transport needs. In order to correctly forecast and develop an integrated transport system for the future, the type of land use that is likely to emerge on the future target data must be well equipped.

There are two types of land use. (a) commercial and industrial activity and (b) residential purpose. Thus, both these places should be linked with the transport plan.



traffic congestion :


Traffic jam is a serious public problem. This is largely a product of unplanned growth of population in cities without any change in road width. Congestion leads to traffic jams causing inconvenience to everyone and loss of time. Accidents also happen frequently. Congestion is also caused by multiple types of slow and fast moving traffic on the same road. Due to overcrowding, the rate of travel becomes unnecessarily slow and the various modes of transport are not able to serve the community with optimum frequency. In recent years, serious efforts have been made to tackle this problem through proper traffic regulation and training of citizens in proper road habits in highly populated cities of India, such as Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, Kanpur etc.




Reasons for traffic jam:

1) Traffic congestion usually increases during morning and evening rush hours. Peak hours are from 9 am to 11 am. and from 4 to 6 p.m. Since shops, offices, factories, educational institutions, all start and close during these hours.

2) Another important factor is the increase in the number of vehicles on the roads due to the increase in motor bus services, especially in the big cities. The result is that the speed of transport has slowed down. The high number of vehicles also increases the risk of accidents on the roads, which have become a lot these days.

3) Another factor causing congestion is the internal competition among the vehicles as well as the controlling officers at some places.

4) Lastly, lack of road sense and regulation is also an important reason for congestion. The drivers are not experts in all matters and sometimes, the policemen controlling the traffic are inexperienced. A slight deviation in the traffic direction leads to the accumulation of vehicles around the crossing, which leads to a jam situation.


  road safety :

Indian roads are among the most unsafe in the world. A large number of deaths occur every year due to reckless driving, disobeying traffic rules, faulty planning etc. Deaths due to road accidents are increasing in Mumbai.

Not only are vehicles congested in Indian cities, but the roads they run on also get jammed during peak hours. In most major cities, business and economic activities are concentrated in central areas, while residences are located in distant suburbs or colonies. This increases travel distances, which exacerbates the already service peak hour traffic problem. Inadequate road and intermediate public transport modes like mini buses, taxis, motorcycles, scooters, rickshaws, cycles, rickshaws and other old modes of transport like handcarts, bullock carts, tongas etc. result in increased traffic congestion.




Construction of new roads or widening of old ones is impossible. On the contrary, the occupation of the streets by pedestrians and hawkers has reduced the available road space.

Pedestrians and cycles are the biggest problem in road accidents

It happens to the riders. Very few roads provide footpaths or footpaths for pedestrians. Lack of adequate footpaths for pedestrians, lack of proper parking and walking around the place and traffic congestion

Major cities have reduced the speed in the central city areas to a crawl, that is, a very low average speed of 6 to 10 kilometers per hour. It is also exacerbated by the most important and highly influential factor, the inability or refusal and hesitation on the part of city planners, officials and politicians to take bold, unorthodox but necessary decisions and implement them.



Urban transport and pollution:


In metropolitan areas, transportation is a major source of air as well as noise pollution. Motor vehicles consume a substantial amount of energy and generate atmospheric pollutants. They create noise and vibration. The main pollutants released from vehicular exhaust are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and lead. All these emissions in varying degrees are harmful not only to human health but also to buildings, vegetation, soil, water and other aspects of the physical environment.

In metropolitan cities, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from vehicles are quite large. Hydrocarbon emissions that result from complete evaporation contribute to the incidence of cancer in cities.

Transportation noise is an environmental issue of increasing concern. In developing countries, older and poorly maintained vehicles emit higher levels of pollutants and greenhouse gases than newer vehicles. New cars with modern combustion technology and emissions controls also contribute to global warming and metropolitan pollution.




  Solutions to Transport Problems or Approaches to Transport Problems and Traffic Congestion in India:


The transportation problem has already reached a saturation point in urban areas. Since sufficient funds are a major constraint, we should make optimum use of existing resources. Existing bus services should be fully utilised, further new capital intensive schemes like metro railway etc should be started. Bus transport will continue to be the major mode of passenger transport for the urban poor. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every operator of this transport system in developing countries to optimize urban bus transport with a view to extracting the maximum carrying capacity from the available fleet, to ensure that bus transport is economical, efficient and effective. , The carrying capacity of the bus should be increased by using fleet route planning, bus scheduling, staff scheduling etc. and reducing the effect of road congestion or by adopting road traffic management etc. Operating cost can be reduced by increasing the speed. And the carrying capacity of the system is also maximum. Mumbai city has introduced limousine (luxury buses) and hovercraft services and vestibule buses (1 to 2 meter long buses with 20 times more capacity than double decker buses) by BEST to decongest traffic as well as reduce pollution. Have seen high profile inaugurations. Roads.

In Mumbai, as far as railway transport is concerned, the cost of operation can be reduced if the carrying capacity is improved by increasing the speed and avoiding disruptions due to power failure. Delayed services also disturb the commuters as they may lose half day’s or full day’s salary in office or workplace.

The involvement of the Ministry of Railways in developing mass transport systems in megacities appears to be important.

Better communication, computers and organization have now made it possible to use buses in demand activated mode (dial-a-bus). The use of electronics to provide information to car drivers and eventually the automatic control of cars on the road is another example of advances in technology. Even mono rail or automatically controlled trains can improve efficiency. It should be possible to apply automatic control to small public transport vehicles, allowing public transport to operate in non-stop origin-to-destination-mode at much lower fares than traditional taxis.




Mass transport systems should be the backbone of urban transit. Decongesting urban centers by establishing and improving the quality of modes of transport such as surface and underground suburban trains, creating new town centers and commercial activity districts, away from existing overburdened single districts Necessary.

Can also be escalators, pedestrian conveyors or sidewalks



We should improve the traffic system, increase the traffic police force,

Maintain good roads, avoid encroachment on roads and have one-way traffic, flyovers, separate pedestrian bridges or subways over bridges to improve speed.

We should be able to reduce road accidents. Stringent licensing procedures, driver education, stricter enforcement of traffic rules, construction of wider footpaths, segregation of goods traffic, resource allocation

Between various communication and transport projects, phasing of office opening and closing times, effective coordination between different modes of transport, office and industrial locations etc. are some of the more immediate and financially viable steps to the problems of transport. We must realize that vehicular movement has many important implications – the energy it consumes, the space and raw materials it requires, the pollution it causes

produces – and the environmental and ecological problems it creates. People should realize that traffic measures are for the civic good, and even if they face slight inconvenience initially, it is useful because in the long run, it will make for a safer and happier city life.



  Water Crisis – An Introduction:


“You can live without oil and you can live without love, but you can’t live without water”. These are the words of Daniel Moynihan, former US ambassador to India, that underline the seriousness of the water crisis in the US but are relevant to the whole world.

Water is an important common resource as it meets basic human needs and is essential for maintaining most life support systems. Water, in its productive capacity, helps sustain economic activity and has a fundamental role in the management of other resources. water provides access to both




and non-use benefits, it can generate taxes, get products for consumption and help create a variety of jobs. Water is essential for life on earth and either too much or too little of it is always the talk of the town.

Worldwide urbanization is a phenomenon of the twentieth century that is putting pressure on our water, land and energy resources. It is estimated that by the year 2025, the number of cities with a population of more than one million will be 639 while the number of cities with a population of more than four million will be 135. By 1987, about 43% of the world’s people were living in cities. This number is expected to double by 2015. Although the world’s largest cities are still in the developed world, one of the fastest growing cities is in the developing world. Industries have developed in most of these cities.

Continued urbanization has increased the demand for fresh water which historically has often been satisfied by groundwater supplies. As the population and per capita income increase, the demand for urban water services will also increase. The pressure on water is likely to increase in the coming years. With the total amount of water available fixed and the environment’s ability to absorb waste limited, we need to explore new management options. The need for water in urban areas around the world is increasing at an alarming rate.

Cities and industries require concentrated food, water and fuel on a scale not found in nature. The waste generation of even a small city exhausts the absorptive capacity of local terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Urban runoff from roads and farms containing all kinds of pollutants ranging from heavy metals to chemicals and sediment, as well as rural runoff associated with agriculture, mining and forestry pollute surface water such as rivers and lakes. Industrial waste and effluents, untreated sewage and municipal waste also contribute to the pollution of surface and groundwater. In developing countries, protected water supplies and sanitation facilities are woefully inadequate. Waste water disposal is becoming a problem in itself for urban communities.

All this water goes into rivers and lakes and even into aquifers, causing serious pollution problems. In India, over 80 billion liters of sewage, much of it untreated, is discharged into our rivers, streams and sea, polluting our water sources. It is estimated that about 70% of the water available in India is polluted.

  A variety of diseases such as cholera, dysentery, typhoid, hookworm, tapeworm, and guineaworm afflict people who use these polluted waters. In addition, industrial waste, mostly untreated, containing toxic metals and compounds, pollutes both surface and underground water sources in streams and in open fields.




An unfortunate feature of urbanization in developing countries is the haphazard growth of cities and the overcrowding of the poor in slums. These slums and unauthorized settlements arise in violation of all codes and regulations. They are distinguished by their unhealthy surroundings, proximity to industrial areas, exposing themselves to industrial accidents (like the Bhopal episode).

Water resources are not evenly distributed around the world. It is therefore not surprising that water disputes take on local, inter-state and international dimensions.

Water through its impact on health should be clearly linked to the issue of social development. without safe drinking water,

Human beings, animals and plants cannot survive.


  Water demand:

Micro climate changes are caused by changing lifestyles. In the northern plains of India, it is now a common practice to install desert water coolers during the summer months. As an indigenous technology, it is a great answer to beat the 450C heat, but water is central to its functioning. Water consumption increases significantly during summer. Each cooler can use about 100 liters of water per day for two summer months. Due to problems in supply of different types of water (treated or untreated type) most of the water used for coolers in all major cities is treated water indicating misuse of high quality water which costs a lot to produce Is. Apart from this, some health related problems like stagnant water and dampness can create havoc.

The breeding of shrews is also linked to the use of desert coolers.

Another problem that has complicated the availability of water is the rapidly changing land use pattern across the country. Conversion of land for agriculture to residential or commercial purposes reduces the open area available for natural recharge of groundwater during rainy periods. With the increase in urban population and increasing urbanization of the land, water availability is bound to reach critical levels sooner or later.

More than 90% of our water requirement is for agriculture.

With regard to both the quality and quantity of water we require


Balanced policy consideration and certainly the most efficient management practices than today. Equitable distribution of water, even within the same urban area and in remote parts of the country with seasonal high demand in summer, is a concrete requirement of any sustainable development. Water is vital to any development, sustainable or otherwise. Due to the pressure on water, the availability and quality of fresh water is a matter of concern all over the world.

Even more alarming than the prognosticator of insufficient water to meet the country’s needs in the coming years is the ground reality of rapid deterioration in water quality. Pollution of rivers and other surface water bodies such as lakes, ponds and tanks through discharge of municipal and industries effluents brings the crisis point very close. The problem of water, both when it is scarce (drought) and when it is in excess (flood), is essentially an issue of efficient conservation and management or lack thereof.

Water scarcity is generally observed in those areas of the country which do not have diversion canals of major rivers or storage facilities of intense rainfall. The groundwater level is depleting at an alarming rate in various parts of India.

Municipalities supply water for residential, commercial, industrial, public and a variety of other uses. Residential uses of water can be classified into household, or domestic, use and sprinkler use. Water used in homes for drinking, cooking, bathing, etc., returns to the sewers after use. When the natural supply of water to lawns by precipitation is deemed insufficient, much residential water is used to irrigate lawns. Such irrigation water is lost by transpiration, does not return to the sewers. The single most important factor affecting the amount of water used in a residential area is the number of households. More affluent consumers tend to have more appliances that use water.

Municipal water requirements vary during the year, generally being highest during early summer and lowest during winter. The main reasons for this variation include outdoor use of water for lawn irrigation, car washing and swimming pools, periods of high evaporation and periods of low rainfall. Water use also fluctuates within each day. Peak use occurs in the early morning and evening, with minor use in the middle of the night. The daily usage pattern is different in summer and winter.


As the current trend of migration from rural to urban areas continues and as total water use continues to increase with increases in population and per capita income, the demand for municipal water will continue to increase. However, the total average supply of water in any


The world’s share remains almost constant. Thus, to meet future water needs, society must manage this resource carefully, taking into account the natural hydrologic uncertainty in the amount of water available at any given time.



water and poverty reduction.


Much of sustainable development focuses on lifting people out of poverty. People privileged enough to live in more affluent parts of the world, as well as those in better off conditions in many developing countries, rarely face the consequences of water scarcity. Although for many of the world’s poor, the story is very different, inadequate access to water is a central part of the people’s poverty that affects them.

Their basic needs, health, food security and basic livelihood.

Improving poor people’s access to water has the potential to make a major contribution towards poverty alleviation. Poverty is no longer seen as a simple lack of income or low per capita Gross National Product (GNP) at the national level. Today it is recognized as a complex, multidimensional condition that includes both the material and non-material aspects of life. Many international organizations have put forward new approaches to poverty reduction in recent years, which have a significant impact on the development of all aspects of life, including key areas of natural resource management such as water.







  water and economic development



The economic well-being of society has by far placed the greatest demand on the world’s water resources. The major economic role of water lies in its relationship with agriculture. This is certainly true at the national level where the issue of food security and national economic performance are linked in a complex way. But it is certain that the control of irrigation and timing of harvest can equally affect the macroeconomics of a country or region. At the local level, agriculture is the mainstay of many rural communities and the availability of sufficient water allows production


Food and beverages for home nutrition

For sale in local markets. The availability of irrigation water allows more crops to be grown per year and the economics involved in the sale of produce, irrigation and year-round farming increase employment opportunities that have a direct economic benefit on the local community.

Water is an essential raw material in many industries that has a major impact on economic performance at the national level, but also at the local and household level. Water plays a large role in electricity generation in many countries, whether by cooling or through direct hydroelectric power generation. Water transport is also important in many parts of the world allowing access to markets as well as creating their own economies. Improved access to water and sanitation plays a large indirect role in local communities, in so far as the time taken for these basic functions is not made available for economic activity. The time, energy and resources saved by improved water and sanitation can often be used on productive economic activities.

Many poor people in urban areas buy their water from private vendors, often at a higher rate than piped water supply. This implies that a major portion of household expenditure is spent on water. The reduction in water prices will have a major impact on the economic status of such people and the availability of money for other things may affect economic growth.


Environmental Sustainability and Regeneration:

Water is an essential part of any ecosystem both in terms of quantity and quality. Reducing the availability of water for the natural environment will have a negative effect on pollution from domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewater. Just as the environment is integral to the social, health and economic impacts of water use, ensuring environmental sustainability and regeneration will also have a positive impact on these sectors.

The damage to the environment is causing a higher number of natural disasters. Floods occur in areas where deforestation and soil erosion prevent the attenuation of flood waters. Climate change, fueled by both emissions and degradation of the world’s natural environment, is blamed for an increasing number of floods and droughts.




The environment is also the source of many resources – food, (agriculture, fisheries and livestock) and raw materials from forests.

insufficiency of water :


As per capita use increases due to lifestyle changes (comfort and domestic practices) and as the population grows, the proportion of water appropriated is increasing.

This, along with spatial and temporal variations in water availability, means that water is becoming increasingly scarce to produce food for human consumption, industrial processes, and all other uses. It is estimated that today more than 2 billion people in more than forty countries are affected by water scarcity: 1.1 billion people do not have enough drinking water and 2.4 billion people have no provision for sanitation. The result could mean an increase in disease, poor food security, conflict between different users, and limits on many livelihoods and productive activities.

Currently many developing countries have difficulty supplying drinking water for their people to the minimum annual per capita water requirement of 1700 cubic meters (m3) needed for active and healthy living. Currently, half of the population of developing countries is living in water poverty.

water flows

It is also essential for the viability of all ecosystems. Unsustainable levels of water withdrawal for other uses reduce the total available to maintain ecosystem integrity. As land is cleared and the demand for water for agriculture and other human uses increases at the expense of natural ecosystems, the appropriation of transpirational moisture by humans is bound to continue. This will result in further disturbance and degradation of natural systems and will have a profound impact on the availability of water resources in the future. Action to ensure that environmental needs are taken into account as a central part of water management is vital if current trends are to be reversed.


  Water Quality :

Even where there is enough water to meet current needs, many rivers, lakes and groundwater resources are becoming increasingly polluted. Major sources of pollution are human waste, industrial


waste and chemicals and agricultural pesticides and fertilizers. It is estimated that half of the population of developing countries is exposed to polluted sources of water which increase the incidence of disease. Major forms of pollution include faecal coliforms, industrial organic matter, acidic substances from mining aquifers and atmospheric emissions, heavy metals from industry, ammonia from agriculture, nitrate and phosphate pollution, pesticide residues, sediment from human-induced erosion in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Are included. and salinization. The situation is particularly worst in developing countries where institutional and structural arrangements for the treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural waste are poor.




  Water related disasters:

Between 1991 and 2000, more than 665,000 people died in 2,557 natural disasters, of which 90% were water-related incidents. Most of the victims (97%) were from developing countries. The increasing concentration of people and infrastructure on vulnerable areas such as coasts and flood plains and marginal land

Meaning more people are at risk. While poor countries are more vulnerable, in every country it is the very poor, the elderly, and women and children who are most affected, especially during and after disasters. Following such events, national figures of infrastructural damage and loss of life are available, but it is hardly possible to determine the impact on the livelihood systems of the population.




Are changes affecting water or Why is the world now facing a water crisis?


  1. a) Geo-political changes The last half century has seen vast changes in the political structure of many countries. Many countries that were once colonies have gained independence, and have assumed the capacity and responsibility of self-government. The rise of communism after World War II and the subsequent Cold War affected the management of water resources.




Command economies with a focus on agriculture resulted in the creation of many large irrigation schemes, some with severe environmental impacts.


The fall of communism and the rise of democracy around the world, both in previous communist states and military dictatorships, have changed the way water resources are managed. This has allowed for greater public awareness of water issues, and helped local groups take care of their local water resources. The changing economic structure in many countries has resulted in less money being available to invest in water management.

  1. b) Population Growth: Population growth has a wide impact on all aspects of resource use including water. As populations grow, demand for freshwater rises and per capita supply inevitably declines, with UN population projections showing that by 2050, nearly 7 billion people in sixty countries will be living water-scarce lives .
  2. c) Agricultural demand: Population growth not only leads to greater demand for water for domestic supply but also impacts most other uses of water. The demand for food increases with population and so does the need for water for agricultural production. In the 20th century, the area of irrigated land more than doubled.
  3. d) Energy Requirements: Due to the increasing population, it becomes necessary to increase the demand for energy. The most obvious use of water for energy production is through the operation of hydroelectric facilities. In case of incidence of water related diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever and so on, the necessary storage can have serious health implications for the surrounding human population. Substantial amounts of water are used in cooling and chemical processes.
  4. e) Urbanization: The urban population has increased significantly during the twentieth century and is estimated to reach

58% of the world’s population by 2025. As the population increases, so does their demand for resources. The deterioration of water supply and sanitation leads to a progressive deterioration in urban living conditions – water scarcity, pollution and unhygienic water conditions, all of which contribute to the urban water and health crisis.

  1. f) Economic Development: Unprecedented economic development took place in the 20th century. Much of this growth was dependent on water consumption as industries (and their water demands) have been




growing at a very rapid pace. Industrialization is a major threat to water quality. The danger of pollution of water resources comes not only from the routine operation of industries but also from the risk of accidents.

  1. g) Globalization: We live in an increasingly interconnected world. Many global brands advertise that the new lifestyle is changing the demands and aspirations around the world. Changes in production technologies and transportation opportunities have created an increasingly international market. Many developing countries have to deal with more hazardous industries, such as those producing dyes, asbestos, and pesticides. Textile manufacturers and tanneries place tremendous pressure on local water resources through both the demand required for production and pollution from waste disposal. Chemical and pharmaceutical production around Indian cities such as New Delhi and Ahmedabad is causing pollution so severe that it is contaminating groundwater aquifers. It is not just industrial production that is responding to a globalized economy, but the agricultural sector also places huge demands on limited water resources.
  2. h) Technological Change: The acceleration of major and highly significant technological changes has a direct impact on water resources and their management. However, the application of these advances has not been uniform and thus the benefits have been biased towards more prosperous nations.

Because water is integral to many needs and behaviors of life, increasing affluence increases the pressure on all resources, including water resources. The water required for the production of various consumer goods is important. To get a refrigerator or television requires electricity and more electricity demands water.

  1. i) Recreation and Tourism: The boom in tourism has many implications. There are undoubtedly economic benefits at the national level due to increased available revenue, but development also requires the use of disproportionate shares of local natural resources, of which water is often the most important. When used, most of this water is disposed of without proper treatment in a manner that contaminates the surrounding water resources.

have an irreversible impact on the resources and their ecosystems.

However, tourism is important for economic well-being and poverty reduction in many developing countries. since the natural




Resources are a powerful part of the attractiveness of this industry, providing additional incentive for resource conservation. In many cases though, tourism leaves an undeniable ecological footprint. Recreation is a major use and a major issue in the planning of water resources in all parts of the world.

  1. j) Climate Change: Global climate is expected to change due to increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The effect of climate change on stream flow and groundwater recharge varies regionally, but generally follows projected changes in precipitation. There is a consensus that many parts of the world are already facing water stress, where rainfall will be less and more variable as the climate changes.


Climate change is also expected to increase the amount and frequency of rainfall—and the associated disasters—floods, droughts, mudslides, thunderstorms and cyclones. Climate change will reduce water quality due to increased concentrations of pollutants and loads from runoff and overflow of waste facilities and increased water temperatures.






Urban water management for the future:


The purpose of water management is to provide the water that people need and want. These needs and demands are on the rise, especially in cities. Therefore, it is necessary to consider how to manage urban water in the future. Today, there are many agencies at all levels of government – local and regional, state and federal – that are concerned with water. Each agency usually has some defined boundary of responsibility, usually related to a specific function, such as water supply, sewage treatment, drainage, flood control, recreation, or port development. There are construction agencies, operating agencies, control agencies, and budget agencies. As a result of this institutionalization of water management, many engineers and managers have become socialized to understand urban water problems.

  1. of these specific functions and institutions. This approach prevents the development of alternatives for water management which include various




There is a need for cooperation between different political bodies even at the same level of functions or government.

As the population and per capita income increase, the demand for urban water services will also increase. Because the total amount of water available is constant and the environment’s capacity to assimilate waste is limited, we need new management options such as water reuse, changing industrial processes, zoning of floodplains, dual water systems and those provided by automated competencies need to be ascertained. Control of water circulation. Non-structural changes such as flow charges, zoning and automatic operational controls should be considered as alternatives and complements to the limited range of structural options now generally considered necessary.

There is a strong momentum in the international community to recognize the importance of water management in the broader processes of poverty reduction and sustainable development. But doing so requires changes in policies and laws as well as new management practices. Such changes are taking place in many places, though it is a long-term process and conservative forces often oppose them. Action to support future improvements, particularly through enhanced international cooperation, will be a key issue for future water management.





Water, land and energy resources. As the population and per capita income increase, the demand for urban water services will also increase. The pressure on water is likely to increase in the coming years. Because the total amount of water available is constant and the environment’s ability to assimilate waste is limited, we need to explore new management options. The need for water in urban areas around the world is increasing at an alarming rate. Water through its impact on health is clearly related to the issue of social development. Human, animal and plant life cannot survive without safe drinking water.


Transportation systems have a significant impact on all human interactions. A transportation system is the sum of all technical devices and organizations designed to enable the movement of persons, goods, and news to a master space. The picture of transport and traffic in all Indian cities is pathetic. A frustratingly cumbersome public transport system, chaotic traffic on major routes and unsafe roads are a recurrent sight. The major causes of this crisis are the boom in urban population, rapid expansion of city limits, increase in travel levels, concentration of business and economic activity in the middle classes of cities, excessive emphasis on motor vehicles and rude and ill-trained drivers. Transportation noise is an environmental issue of increasing concern.

Water is an important common resource as it meets basic human needs and is essential for maintaining most life support systems. Worldwide urbanization is a phenomenon of the twentieth century that is causing stress to us

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