Problems Of Scheduled Tribes

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  Inaccessible habitat is a problem. Unapproach able Habitation – A Problem: Almost all the tribes live in mountainous areas, forests, marshes – land and places where there is lack of roads and the current means of transport and communication is not available there yet.    As a result, contacting them has become a difficult task.  That is why they are still unfamiliar with the sweet fruits of scientific inventions and their economic, educational, health and political problems have not been solved.  They are also unfamiliar with other cultures.  As a result, they have their own Way of Life which lacks comprehensiveness.  The problem of communication has arisen due to inaccessible habitat.  Road, post office, telegram, telephone, newspaper, radio and cinema facilities have not been reached in these areas, hence their.  Modernization has not been done and there is a hurdle in getting the unity of the country tied.


  Problem of Cultural Contact (Geographical): As a result of inaccessible geographical habitat, they have not been able to contact modern culture and they are very lagging behind in the current progress.  On the other hand, some tribal cultures were exposed to external cultures.  This excessive contact has also created many problems.  Many reasons are responsible for giving rise to the problems of cultural interaction among the tribals.  The interaction of new cultures gave the innocent tribals their own.  attracted .  But there are differences between primitive and new cultures that they could not adapt to the new.  External selfish groups such as traders, contractors and usurers have settled among these people and have given rise to new family tensions, economic problems and physical diseases among them.  The new administration contacted them with police officers, administration and forest officers, etc., who have seen the tribals with inferiority rather than looking with sympathy.  Presently, many new industries – businesses, mines and tea gardens are being started in the places where the tribal people used to live.  As a result, they came in contact with the new industrial and urban culture, but they were unable to adapt with this innovation.  As a result new cultural problems were born.  Christian missionaries preached their work in the name of service and took advantage of the ignorance and illiteracy of the tribals.  Due to the influence of Christian missionaries, many tribals abandoned their culture and adopted Western culture.  They began to use English dress, intoxicants, new means of toiletries such as powders, lipsticks, perfumes, oils, etc. and discarded their customs, practices, youth homes, and their ancient fine arts began to decline.  Tribal law and justice have been replaced by new law and justice, which do not match their traditional values.  Among the external cultural groups that came into contact with the tribals are Hindus.  Due to the contact with the Hindus, the practice of child marriage flourished and language problems arose in these people.  Thus many problems arose due to the contact with the external cultural groups of the tribals, such as the problem of land system, forest problem, economic exploitation and indebtedness, problem of industrial workers, child marriage, prostitution and occult diseases, language problem, tribal fine arts.  Decline of food, problem of food and clothing and problem of education and religion, etc.



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  Economic Problems -Tribal people are facing economic problems due to the current cultural connectivity and new government policy.  Due to the new policy of the land government, cutting of the forests was forbidden, in many areas, hunting and brewing were also banned, which caused the Kagatribals to adopt new methods instead of traditional methods of living.  They were prohibited from cutting wood from forests, doing transferred farming and obtaining other items.  They were forced to abandon their original residence and work in tea gardens, mines and factories.  Now they started working as landless agricultural laborers and industrial workers.  Taking advantage of the compulsion of these people, the contractors and industrialists started taking more work from them at lower wages.  The conditions of residence and work of these people are also lamentable.  They have thus been economically exploited.  Earlier, barter was prevalent in the economy of these people, now they became familiar with the currency economy.  The traders, drug dealers and usurers took advantage of this and the innocent people were duped.  They have become indebted and have either sold or mortgaged their agricultural land to moneylenders.  Out of the tribes which are engaged in agriculture, some of them do transferred agriculture.  They first set fire to the forests and then work on that land.  After a few days, if the land is not cultivable, then in the same place, they also do agriculture.  The result is that the erosion of the land increases, the precious wood is burnt in the forests and the yield is also reduced.  The economic problem of the tribes is linked to the agricultural problem.  They lack agricultural land due to living in hilly areas.  Not only this, they also lack advanced animals, seeds, tools and capital, hence agriculture is not beneficial for them.


   Social Problems– Due to the interaction of urban and civilized societies, many social problems have also arisen in the tribals.  Earlier, marriage among these people used to take place at a young age, but now child marriages have started, which is the result of contact with Hindus.  Due to the entry of money economy, now the girl price is also being taken in them.  The people of civilized society look down upon the childish youth – houses prevalent among the tribes.  The youth was home to the tribals for recreation, social training, providing means to fulfill their economic interests and was the center of education, but now this institution is ending, which has many harmful effects.  Taking advantage of the poverty of tribes, contractors, moneylenders, businessmen and employees establish inappropriate sexual relations with their women, causing problems of prostitution and extra-marital sex relations.


Problems related to health Most of the tribes live in dense forests, hilly areas and lowland areas.  Many diseases are found in these parts.  Many skin diseases occur due to wearing wet and dirty clothes.  Malaria jaundice, smallpox, Rohe, indigestion and genitals are also found in these people.  There is a lack of hospitals for treatment of diseases, no facilities for doctors and modern medicines.  These people are using wild herbs, chandeliers and witchcraft.  Most tribals are unaware of the laws of health.  They do not even get nutritious food.  These people have been using liquor of mahua, rice, palm, jaggery, etc.  many Tribes are destroying the population.  The main reason for the decrease in the population of the Andaman and Nicobar tribes is the prevalent disease among them.

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  Problems related to education – Tribes lack education and they are growing up in the darkness of ignorance.  Due to illiteracy, they are surrounded by many superstitions, evils and misgivings.  The tribal people are indifferent to the present education because this education is unproductive for them.  Those who have taken modern education get away from their tribal culture and view their original culture with hatred.  Education today does not provide a definite means of subsistence.  Hence educated people have to face unemployment.  Christian missionaries have done the work of spreading education among the tribes, but their purpose behind this has been to propagate Christianity and convert the tribals.  Most of the tribals are able to take primary education only, they are not much interested in higher technical and science education.


  Problem of Political Awakening: After independence, all citizens of the country have been given democratic rights and made them partners in governance by the Constitution.  Today, representatives from Panchayat to Parliament are elected by the general public.  Political parties play an important role in democracy.  The traditional political system of tribes was of its own kind, in which mostly hereditary chiefs worked in administration.  The rights and kinship conferred in their entire political system had special significance, but today they are familiar with the new political system.  They are also aware of their socio-economic problems, they have started exercising their political rights in the context of solving their problems.  Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.  His political awareness has yielded bitter results in Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.  Their relations with administrators, owners and strangers are strained.  Political tension and rebellion has arisen in many places.  They have demanded an autonomous state.  Today they understand that their small number of compulsions have been taken advantage of by exploited groups and exploited by them.  There is intense resentment towards this exploitation which continues to flare up occasionally.  This political awakening should not take a violent form in future, it worries politicians.

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To find out the weakest link (To Find out the Weakest Link) The Commissioner of Scheduled Castes and Tribes has stated in his 1967 – 68 annual report that the problem of tribes is to find the weakest link.  The country’s scheduled tribes are poverty-stricken, but there are some tribes that are relatively poor.  Similarly, tribes have been neglected, but some tribes have been the most neglected.  Therefore, the biggest problem is to find the poorest and the neglected tribe, which is the weakest link among the tribes.  Special needs for the development and progress of this weak link should be met and their needs met.  The Tribal Commissioner has detected such a weak link in various states.  The Baran, Lean, NaiKada and Barli tribes in Gujarat;  Baiga, Gound, Maria, Bhumiya, Kamar and Mwasi tribes in Madhya Pradesh;  Bhotia, Jansari, Tharu tribes in Uttar Pradesh;  The Bhil, Dabhor and Hariya tribes fall under the weakest link in Rajasthan.  The problem of weak link tribes is more severe than other tribes.


  Problem of Integration – Many differences are found in Indian tribes on the basis of economy, social system, constitutional arrangements and welfare schemes 431 3 Culture, religion and political system.  They are different from other people in the country.  Today it is necessary that collective efforts should be made by all the citizens to get rid of the specific problems of the country and the tribes.  The tribes should consider themselves as separate from other people and connect with the main life stream of the country, only then we will be able to tackle the problems of poverty, exploitation, ignorance, illiteracy, disease, unemployment and inferior health.  To deal with these problems, cooperation of various people groups and flow and integration in the mainstream of national life is necessary.  For this, minority groups have to be made partners in the economic and political economy of the country and will have to take them along in development plans.  Thus the integration of tribes is also a very big problem.


 Problems of Frontier Tribes Problems of Frontier Tribes – The problems of tribes residing in the North-Eastern Border provinces are somewhat different from the problems in different parts of the country.  China, Myanmar and Bangladesh are close to the northeastern provinces of the country.  Our relations with China have not been cordial for the last few years.  Bangladesh, formerly known as East Pakistan, has been a bitter enemy of India.  China and Pakistan have instigated a spirit of rebellion among the tribes of the border provinces, assisted them with weapons and given shelter to rebel Nagas and other tribes leaders to go underground.  Due to education and political awakening, the tribes of the region have demanded an autonomous state.  For this, they have organized movements and struggles.  Hence the biggest problem today is to deal with the demand for autonomy of the tribes residing in the border areas.  – From time to time efforts have been made by the Government of India to solve the problems of the tribes.  We will mention them here.


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 Constitutional Arrangements Regarding Scheduled Tribes


The Fifth Schedule provides for the appointment of a Tribal Advisory Council consisting of a maximum of twenty members, of which three-fourths shall be from the Scheduled Tribes of the State Legislative Assemblies.

In articles 324 and 244, governors have been given privileges in respect of tribes.

There are also some articles in the constitution that Madhya Pradesh.  Related to providing special facilities for tribes-areas of Chhattisgarh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, etc.  The jobs for these people have application forms and age limit.  They are also exempted from duty in educational institutions and some places have been kept safe for them.  S

  – 93rd Constitutional Amendment (2005) to provide reservation benefits to the backward classes from the untrained caste, tribe and social and educational outlook in private educational institutions (except minority educational institutions)  The purpose of various provisions laid down in the Constitution is to bring the tribes at par with other citizens of the country.  They have to be integrated and integrated with the main life stream of the country so that they can become partners in the economic and political business of the country.  Pandit Nehru was also very interested in the development of tribes.  They did not want anything to be imposed on them.  He said that we should promote the development of their art and culture, respect their land rights, develop their ability to govern themselves and human character.

The educational and economic interests of scheduled tribes should be protected and they should be protected from all forms of exploitation and social injustice.  (Article 46)

– No obstruction should be placed on their admission in government-run or government-funded learners.  (Article 29, 2)

Obstructions on the use of shops, public eateries, hotels and places of public recreation should be removed, for which the government bears all or some of the expenditure, or which are dedicated to the public.  (Article 15, 2)

– The doors of public places of Hindus should be legally opened to all Hindus.  (Article 25b)


– For the representatives of Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies, certain seats should be reserved till 25 January 2015 on the basis of population.  (Articles 324, 330 and 342).


– If the tribal people are not adequately represented in public services or government jobs, then the government should be empowered to secure a place for them and consider the claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes at the time of appointments in government jobs.  (Articles 16 and 335).


For the purpose of welfare and interests of tribes, Tribal Advisory Council and separate departments should be established in the states and a special officer should be appointed at the center.  (Articles 164, 338 and Fifth Schedule) (8) Special arrangements should be made for the administration and control of scheduled tribe areas.  (Articles 224 and Fifth and Sixth Schedules).

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According to Article 244 (2), there is a legislation to establish District and Regional Council for the tribes of Assam.

– Part 6, Article 164 of the Constitution provides for the establishment of tribal ministries in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa in addition to Assam.


  Article 46 of Part 4 of the constitution is considered the duty of the state to pay special attention to the advancement of education of tribes and protection of economic interests.


– Legal system to impose reasonable restrictions by the State on the common rights of the people of the Scheduled Tribes to come and go freely in India – to go, live and settle and to buy, keep and sell property.  (Article 19, 5).


 According to article 275 of the twelfth part of the constitution, the central government will give special funds to the states for tribal welfare and their proper administration.


 325 Article of the fifteenth part of the constitution states that no one will be denied franchise on the basis of religion, race, caste and sex.

In the 330th and 332nd ARTICLES of the sixteenth part, seats have been reserved for Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies.


335th Article assures that the government will secure a place for these in jobs.


– In the 338th Article, the President has arranged for the appointment of special officers for Scheduled Castes and Tribes.  This officer will submit his report every year.


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Administrative Arrangement Some areas of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan have been ‘Scheduled’ under Article 224 and Fifth Schedule of the Constitution.  The Governors of these states report the Scheduled Areas every year to the President.  Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram are administered on the basis of the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.  According to this schedule, they are divided into Autonomous districts.  There are eight such districts – North Cachar Pahari District of Assam and Mikir Pahari District, Combined Khasi of Meghalaya – Jayantia, Jowai and Garo Pahari District and Chakma, Lacher and Pavi District of Mizoram.  Each autonomous district has a ZillaParishad consisting of not more than 30 members.  Four of them can be nominated and the remaining are selected on the basis of adult suffrage.  This council has been granted some administrative, statutory and judicial powers.


Welfare and Advisory Agencies It is the responsibility of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs to formulate and implement schemes for the welfare of Scheduled Castes and Tribes.  In August 1978, a commission was established for Scheduled Castes and Tribes under Article 348 of the Constitution.  The commission, made up of one chairman and four members of it, examines the provisions made in the constitution under the Civil Rights Act of 1955, 1955) and suggests appropriate measures for these.  Parliamentary Committees The Government of India also appointed three parliamentary committees in 1968, 1971 and 1973 to examine run protection and their welfare in the constitution of Scheduled Castes and Tribes.  At present, a standing committee of Parliament has been formed, whose members have a term of one year.  This committee consists of 30 members, out of which 2 are drawn from Lok Sabha and 10 from Rajya Sabha.  Welfare Department in the states Separate departments have been set up for the care and welfare of Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the State Governments and Union Territories.  Each state has its own specific mode of administration.  In Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha separate ministers are appointed under Article 164 of the Constitution for the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes.  In some states, legislative committees have been formed like the Parliamentary Committees like the Center.


  Representation in Legislatures: Articles 330 and 332 of the Constitution have reserved seats for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the Lok Sabha and state legislatures in proportion to their population.  Initially this arrangement was for 10 years, which has been extended to 25 January 2020 under the 95th Constitutional Amendment (2009).  This type of reservation has been done by the Parliamentary Act in the Union Territories where there are legislatures.  At present, 47 seats have been reserved for Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha and 557 in Legislative Assemblies.  Places have also been saved in the Gram Panchayats and other local bodies for the implementation of the Panchayati Raj system.


 Reservations in Government Services. 7 of Scheduled Tribes in appointments made by open competition on all-India basis or in other types of appointments.  5 locations have been secured.  For the posts of Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ in which appointments are made on local and provincial basis, each province and union territory reserves a proportion of the population of scheduled castes.  For Scheduled Tribes also in appointments made on the basis of departmental examinations in Group ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ and promotion in Group ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, and ‘A’  7% places have been secured, if no more than 66 -% direct recruitment is made in them.  Group ‘A’ comprising 2, 250 Rs.  Or, positions have also been secured in promotions to lower paid posts.  Several types of relaxation have been given to give representation to the people of the tribes in jobs like relaxation in age limit, relaxation in suitability criteria, relaxation in selection related inappropriateness, relaxation in qualification related to experience and research of Group ‘A’, Scientist  And relaxation in technical levels.  State governments have also made several provisions in relation to recruitment and promotion of Scheduled Castes in the state services.  Appointments of some officers have been made to contact various ministries of the Central Government, which will see if orders have been followed to secure space for them.  On 25 February 2007, the Central Government decided to provide reservation to SC and ST candidates for admission to the graduate level medical and dental programs through the All India Entrance Examination from the year 2008.


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