characteristics of the social movement

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  1. Collective effort: Relating the social movement to the collective  It happens through efforts, not personal efforts.  These collective efforts are those which are undertaken to bring about a complete or partial change in the society or culture for a long time or it is opposed to any change.  It is through collective effort that a large number of people become aware of their problems and their solutions.


  1. Based on organized schemes: Whatever the nature of the movement is social, religious, political, it is run by some organized public group.  In India, many organized political parties are carrying out the movement against inflation.  The movement against sati and child marriage was organized by organized organizations like Arya Samaj, Brahma Samaj etc.


  1. Definite Goals: A major feature of the social movement is that each movement has a set goal or objective.  These goals give a particular direction to the movement or connect the people participating in it.  It is possible that the goal set by the movement cannot be achieved, but the form of the movement is determined according to its goals.  For example, the goal of the Brahmo Samaj was to dispel evil practices and religious superstitions, while the salt movement by Gandhiji aimed at non-violently disobeying government laws.  Similarly, efforts were made to remove the evils of carnivores and liquor by the Tana Bhagat movement.


  1. Ideology: People’s collective consciousness and collective efforts towards a problem takes the form of a social movement only when such efforts are based on a particular ideology.  For example, a strike by students involves some problems and collective efforts but cannot be called a movement because such strikes are not related to any ideology.  On the other hand, when efforts are made by backward sections of the society to collectively improve their condition or demand their rights, then such efforts are based on a particular ideology.  That is why we call these efforts the movement of backward classes.


  1. Problem: The basis of all social movements is the emergence of a particular problem in an area, community or large group.  This problem may be related to social, cultural, artistic or political life of the people.  Due to the situation of crisis, many people get organized or try to overcome it either by bringing changes in the system or opposing the changes that have resulted in this problem.


  1. Leadership: Leadership is a major element in every social movement.  It is possible that the leadership of the movement is in the hands of many people, but only the leaders make the outline of the movement and propagate it in the public and guide the people to make it effective.  If the movement is led by a spiritual leader, then its power becomes immense.


  1. Changes: The goal of social movement is to bring change, this change can happen in social relations, ideals, beliefs, traditions or practices etc.  This goal is deliberately made and announced.


  1. Anti-system nature: Generally the nature of social movement is in a particular system.  Is opposed to.  In a particular period, a special movement starts to oppose or change the social, cultural or economic systems that exist in the society.  The aim of such protest is to remove the obstacles which are hindering the social development or depriving a particular class of its just rights.


  1. Renunciation and surrender: One of the main features of this is the spirit of sacrifice, dedication and sacrifice among the people participating in the social movement.  Whenever a large section of the society makes a movement for the independence of the country, social reform, demand for justified rights or to remove inequality, in this case, it is ready to dedicate everything.  This spirit makes the movement strong.  For example, sacrifice and dedication are found in the group associated with the Brahmo Samaj Movement and Quit India Movement, which gives strength to this movement.


  1. Non-violent means: The agitators use only non-violent means.  They propagate the movement through their efforts through news letters, radio, speeches and make every effort to support Lokmat in their favor.  Many times in their program, using the means of strike, picket, hunger strike, boycott, satyagraha etc., attract the attention of the agitating people and government towards their difficulties.


  1. Based on sentimentality: The movement is a psychological process.  It requires skilled leadership.  If the leader is successful in communicating sentiments in the thoughts of the public due to his influence, then the movement starts in an instant.  The more emotionally connected a person is to a movement, the more the movement will be organized.


  1. Nature of the movement: The movement is organized and starts simultaneously in all the areas where it occurs but if the movement does not end soon, then the movement spread to other areas and classes or organizations in sympathy of the movement.  goes .  It may also be that other organizations do not take an active part in the movement, but demonstrate sympathy for it and indirectly help the agitators.  Factors of social movement: Social movements occur from time to time in every society.




The factors responsible for this can be described as follows


  1. The antiquity of customs: customs prevail in every society, but the society is dynamic.  If the customs do not move according to the society and stick to the antiquity, then they do not fulfill the needs of the society, so some section of the society tries to agitate against them so that those customs are changed by the society.  Can be made favorable and society can become progressive.

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  1. Imbalance in status and work: Every person wants his place in society only according to his ability and ability and does his work accordingly, but when imbalance in position (position) and work arises, then dissatisfaction in society  The feeling of is born and its result is social movement.  This often happens in societies from tradition to modernity.


  1. Cultural Delay: There are two physical and non-physical elements of culture.  The meaning from material element is derived from inventions and material achievements, and non-material elements include customs, social ideals, practices and social values.  Often our physical inventions develop at a rapid pace, while the customs of society do not change at such a rapid pace.  Thus, one side of the culture (material side) transcends the other (non-material side).  Augburn calls it cultural delays.  Due to this delay, dissatisfaction arises in the backward class and that disgruntled class organize to agitate their position and create a movement.  The position of women in India was high, but the position of women in society was not high.  To rise high in this situation, women have organized and organized a movement.  The reform movement of women in India has received considerable help.


  1. Discontent in the economic sector: As the feeling of dissatisfaction intensifies in the economic sector, the poor class is dissatisfied and makes a movement to bring changes in the economic condition.  Economic discontent affects all other aspects of life.  The economic condition of the workers and women in India was poor, so they started various movements to improve their condition.


  1. Materialism through education: The movement of the movement will be rapid only in those places where there will be an educated society.  Only the people of an educated society can create awareness in people, because they themselves are also awake.  Therefore, the spread of materialism through education is a real factor of social movement, that is, if the educated person is unemployed or has risen in opposition to any government policy, then in such a situation the movement can be quite frightening.


  1. Discontent among social classes: Different classes are found in society.  These classes are divided on the basis of age, status, gender, religion, education etc.  There is a feeling of discontent in all the base-built classes.  Men do not allow women to move forward, young men are stopped by the elderly, the poor are persecuted by the rich.  In this way, dissatisfaction develops in social classes as well.  This dissatisfaction also encourages the movement.


  1. Changes in the functions of social institutions: The functions of social institutions are determined by society and culture, but when the functions of these institutions change and their functions When other institutions accept the condition and direction, sometimes a situation of uncertainty develops which leads to a social movement.


  1. Apathy towards social values: There are certain beliefs in the society.  If each person walks according to the prevailing beliefs in the society then the organization remains in the society.  But when there is a difference or indifference to the beliefs prevailing in the society due to any reason, dissatisfaction arises in one section of the society and movements start in search of new values ​​in the society.


  1. Contact with different cultures: When people of one culture contact people of another culture, the process of exchange of culture starts in both.  Cultural exchanges lead to new ideas.  These new ideas give rise to social movements.  A predominantly dominant culture affects the weaker culture more, while itself less.


  1. Convenience to travel abroad: A person gets a new experience or new knowledge by traveling abroad.  By meeting other people, his narrowness ends.  The influence of customs prevailing in foreign countries brings changes in the culture of other countries and from that the situation of social movement is born.  The reason for improvement in the condition of women in India is the result of foreign cultures.  In order to remove the old social practices in India, the knowledge of the leaders of the social reform movement has developed due to traveling abroad


  1. Impact of technology: The use of different types of machines in the society also encourages social movement.  .  Due to these instruments, tomorrow – factories develop, due to which tension arises between the capitalist class and the working class in the society.  The working class agitates for its demands.  Due to technology, there is a difference in living conditions in the society.  The use of more machines gives a particular class authority over the means of production.  At the same time unemployment increases in the society and there is an increase in the exploitation of workers, due to which the movements are created for the fulfillment of different kinds of objectives in the society.  The student movement in India is the result of this kind of unemployment and it is a product of unemployment technology.


  1. Development of means of transport and conveyance: Due to scientific inventions, the means of transport has developed.  Such devices have also developed, through which news can be sent from one place to another.  Due to this system, the circumstances of one society have an impact on the other.  If there is a movement in one society due to any reason, then they also have an impact on the other society.  Therefore, if there is a student movement in one corner of India, it cannot be stopped from spreading to the other.


  1. Opposition of the evils by enlightened persons: In every society there are some educated and knowledgeable persons who attract public attention against the evils prevailing in the society.  The public is influenced by their views and agitates to make changes in ancient customs.  Raja Rammohan Roy, Kabir, Nanak, etc. Social reform movements are examples of this category.  Had finished


  1. Creation of organizations on the basis of caste: The formation of many organizations on the basis of caste in the society accelerates the pace of social movement, because these organizations try to develop their own areas and the same  As a result of this various movements are organized.  Many examples of ethnic conflicts are found in Indian society.  Ethnic organizations have played an important role in the movements of backward castes.


  1. Apathy towards the female world: In the societies where restrictions are placed on the freedom of women, in those societies, feelings of apathy are found in women.  One reason for apathy in the female society is that they are given equal rights as men.  Under these circumstances, the women’s society has to agitate for their rights.  Many women’s movements in India are examples of this.  Reasons for Social Movement: While every social movement has specific causes, but for the convenience of study, some common causes of social movements are described from the following three perspectives


  1. Sociological explanation

  2. Historical explanation and

  3. Psychological  the explanation . 

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  1. Sociological Explanation: Social movements are the product of special social conditions.  Some social factors only motivate a person to participate in the movement.  Under sociological explanation, the reasons for social movements are explained on the basis of social disorganization, social class, status and social ideals: (i) Social disintegration: Such economic, political, social and moral conditions arise in the 18th and 19th centuries.  Had caused dissatisfaction and disorder in individuals.  The old social system began to disintegrate.  Centralization of wealth started in a few hands.  The masses started reaching the poor category.  As a result of these circumstances, people’s trust was lost from the traditional leaders, in place of this, development of educated leadership began, opposition to feudalism and popular power was supported and the rule of mass groups was established.  This resulted in the emergence of mass society, a sense of alienation and political isolation.  (ii) Social class: Class or class consciousness can be a reason for social movement.  Karl Marks has called the movement a ‘class struggle’.  The society has been divided into different classes due to modern production system.  Each class is conscious of its interests.  There are many movements to fulfill your interests.  (iii) Position or position – asymmetry: When people in society feel that their position is not that which they should get or less qualified persons have got such a position, which they really should have got, then they are disappointed  Become and want to change such a system by the movement.  Lenski has written that the asymmetry and difference of positions lead to left-wing and right-wing movements.  Ringer and Sills found in the political movement of Iran the characteristic of their

There was great inconsistency in social posts and higher education.  Lipset and Bendeix have also ruled that post-disorganization drives groups towards a radical view.  (iv) Social ideals: An ideal-oriented movement is an attempt to restore, preserve, amend or create ideals in the name of a generalized belief.  An ideal of any kind – economic, educational, political, religious – can be the subject of such movements.  Criticism: Some scholars have criticized sociological explanations.  Rush and Denisoft say, “Social disorganization, class and status are not sufficient reasons for a social movement.  “It only shows why individuals participate in the movement, but what is the reason for the movement? It is not known. In India many Shudras have had asymmetry for hundreds of years but they did not develop any kind of movement.  Likewise, Marx’s class consciousness in the US could not generate any movement. In fact, social movement is a complex phenomenon. Sociological explanation sheds light on only one side of it.  They search for the cause of it, so they search for its causes with the people, forms and dynamics related to it. There is no sudden movement. There is a reason behind every movement. Those reasons must be discovered by historical studies.  Criticism: Historical explanation is not sufficient to explain the cause of social movement, because it does not help us in discovering and establishing definitive general rules related to movement. Historical explanation also does not tell.  Why do two different kinds of movements take place in the same society under similar circumstances?  3. Psychological Explanation: When some members of the society are unable to fulfill their goals or fulfill their desires in the social structure, they become frustrated, start to experience stress.  Stress, disappointment etc;  Mental conditions have consequences.  Despair and discontent turn them against the current structural system of society.  After talking to each other, such individuals start to organize as a group and their loyalty towards the movement increases.  It is in this movement that they see the fulfillment of their desires.  Criticism: Psychological explanation has also not been able to explain the reasons for the movements.  The social movement cannot be explained in terms of the mental state of its leaders or the mental state of their activities or members.  No single reason can be held responsible for the social movement.  For the development of the movement, the days of social disintegration, personal isolation, social injustice are allowed.  For the movement, it is necessary to have discontent with any social organization or structure, and awareness of the state of discontent among the members.  To overcome this situation, a creative ideology is present in the form of ideology.  In the end, many people are eager to implement this idea.


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Social Movement Looking at the causes of the movements, we should also look at the functional condition of the social situation which motivates the members to take up the movement.  Different stages or stages of social movement: Every social movement goes through certain stages or stages in its period.  Horton and Hunt have written that, “Even if no two movements are exactly the same, different movements reveal a lot of the same thing.  The following stages of social movements that can arise and develop can be referred to:


  1. A state of social discontent or unrest: Often social movements arise at a time when many individuals are due to a defect in social structure or because of any cultural activities.  The reasons are unsatisfying.  This is the first stage of the social movement.  This is called a state of ‘social dissatisfaction’.


  1. Mass reaction or provocative situation: In this situation, public excitement is spread, dissatisfaction increases and everyone feels that the crisis or problem to be overcome is overcome by direct action.  Major matters are disputed and people get excited.  At the same time, people’s feelings are provoked.


  1. Formal organization: In this situation public excitement starts taking organized form and a certain organization of movement develops.  In this stage, clear leadership also develops.  The basis of the movement is spread far and wide and every effort is made to achieve the goal set.


  1. Status of Institution: In this, the expected target is received by the society.  Gradually, the movement is so formalized that it is immediately institutionalized.  It takes the form of a permanent institution or employee system.


  1. Status of Closing: Some movements cease on their own after the attainment of their goals, some movements are established as a special sect or monastery, the followers of which try to achieve their goals, some  The movements go through a transition period and instead of the original goals, some move towards the attainment of new goals, some movements are completely successful and contribute significantly to the society as an institution.  It is also a difficult task to tell which are the stages or stages of development of social movement, because depending on the nature of the movement, there are some differences between the states.


  1. Social Discontent
  2. Stimulation
  3. formalization and
  4. institutionalization.

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Herbert Blumer has given five stages of social movements which are:

  1. Stimulation
  2. Development of fixed feeling 
  3. Development of morale
  4. Construction of ideology and
  5. Development of operational tips. 


Horton and Hunt have also given the following five stages of development of social movements:


  1. a state of dissatisfaction
  2. arousing state
  3. a state of formalization
  4. a state of institutionalization and
  5. a state of completion.

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From this we come to know that there is not much difference in the views of scholars about different levels of development of social movements.


Here is a brief explanation of Herbert Blumer’s ideas:


  1. Stimulus: The first level of development of social movement is the feeling of dissatisfaction prevailing among the members towards any current problem prevailing in the society which develops excitement among the members  .  Although some of the participants in the movement may also be of a peaceful and courteous nature, yet the excitement brings the individuals supporting the movement closer together.


  1. Development of certain feelings: In this second stage of the development of the movement, certain feelings and principles about the movement are formed.  This union spirit is imperative to bring officers closer to each other.


  1. Development of morale: In the third stage of the development of the movement, the morale of the agitators becomes more determined and fixed.  Development of morale is essential for the movement.  If the supporters develop the feeling that the purpose of the movement is pure and that injustice will be overcome, then the movement is sure to succeed.


  1. Formation of ideology: In this fourth stage of the development of the movement, a certain ideology is created for the continuation of the movement.  This ideology is developed by leaders or intellectuals who support the movement and soon it gets adequate support.  Ideology occupies an important place in the social movement, then the movement cannot play any important role.  Movements without a definite ideology do not last long.


5. Development of operating tips: After the development of ideology, the deliberative tips for conducting the movement are considered and attempts are made to obtain consensus on the alternative tips to be adopted under different circumstances.  It is not necessary that the tips of one country, state or movement help in another country, state or movement.  The selection of operating tips is done by keeping the nature of the movement, the type of leadership and the purpose of the movement in front.  We can also call it a state of formalization and institutionalization.


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