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The feelings of regionalism also play an important role in politics. Regionalism is also known from Prade Sakta’s address. Defining regionalism is a difficult task because the region is defined by different bases like geography, economic development, linguistic unity, caste and tribe etc. Due to many of these grounds being interrelated, the problem of definition of regionalism becomes more complex. In general, regionalism can be said to be that feeling which is related to any part or region of the country and which is aware of its separate existence due to geographical, economic, socio-cultural etc. reasons. When the people living in a particular area start feeling that their constitutional interests are being neglected, then the feelings of patriotism start growing in them, due to which their loyalty is towards their area rather than the whole nation becomes more. People demand exclusive rights and more facilities for the development of their area.

Due to which the national goals lag behind. Due to regionalism, a person only wants to fulfill the objectives of his state and does not care about the interests of the neighboring states and the whole country.

Generally four results of regionalism in India have been told:-


 Reorganization of regional cultures

 Administrative and Political Precipitation

Formulation of rules for resolving Centre-State conflicts so as to avoid conflict between two or more sub-cultural areas.

Maintaining economic and political balance between the center and the states or the nation and sub-cultural regions


Geographical, social, cultural and economic diversity in India is the main reason for regionalism. Geographical diversity has led to the development of distinct cultural groups in different regions. These cultural groups have a long history and take pride in their distinct identity. In contemporary India, these regional sub-cultures have taken the form of sub-nationalism, which leads to fierce disputes between two states over the water of rivers or some villages. The concept of ‘Son of the Earth’ is also a result of this regionalism. It has become a challenge for the nation. Protest of non-Marathas in Bombay, Tamil-Karnataka water dispute, protest of Biharis in Delhi, protest against states in railway recruitment, cultural-ethnic identities of North East and Khalistan movement of Punjab are major examples of this.

The role of regionalism in Indian politics can be explained from the following facts:-



In India, there has been a demand for separate states on the basis of territoriality and the states have been bargaining with the centre. The demand for providing more autonomy to the states is also the result of this, due to which there is a situation of tension many times in the relations between the center and the state. Today there is a demand by the people of many states to make different areas as separate states, such as separation of Andhra and Telangana in Andhra Pradesh, separation of Bundel section of Uttar Pradesh from West Pradesh (Green Pradesh), Vidarbha from Maharashtra. There is a demand for separation.

Loyalty in a state has to be towards its own state only, due to which there is an increase in inter-state conflicts. Disputes between Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan regarding distribution of water of Narmada River in India, Disputes between Maharashtra and Karnataka regarding distribution of electricity generated from Bhakra Nangal Dam, Punjab and Punjab on the issue of Chandigarh.

Disputes in Haryana, disputes between Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu regarding Kaveri water, disputes between Punjab and Haryana on the issue of Chandigarh and border disputes between Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, etc. various problems remain a serious challenge due to which the entire The integrity and integration of the country is in danger.

Due to the state power, tension has arisen in the relations between the center and the states because the states opposing the policy of the center and following the instructions of the center is the result of the policy of the state power.


The North-South dispute in India is the result of state power because the people of the southern states think that they are neglected in every matter. The southern states have also been continuously opposing the imposition of Hindi and they want that the language of state government should be English instead of Hindi.

The root cause of the problem of linguistics can also be given and regionalism is also a feeling. Because of this, a link language has not been developed in India till date.

It is because of the state power that people of some states have been talking about separation from the Indian Union. The demand for ‘Independent Mizoram’, ‘Khalistan’, ‘Bodoland’ and ‘Gorkhaland’ is the result of regionalism.

Political parties have been formed on the basis of state power. Akali Dal, D.M.K., A.K. Please come. DMK, Trinamool Congress, DRC, Shiv Sena etc. parties have developed because of Prade Sakta.

Due to territoriality, the concept of ‘son of the land’ has also taken birth.

The basis of which is that people living in one state should be given priority in employment and business in their own state. It has become a challenge for the nation today.

Political parties take support of state power to strengthen themselves and on this basis many times candidates are selected and votes are sought.

Due to the strong feeling of regionalism, the importance of regional parties is increasing at the federal level and the era of coalition politics and political instability has started in the center. As a result, the establishment of the National Security-Investigation Agency was opposed by several regional parties. Its impact ranges from law and order to economic development. All in all, it can be said that the social structure of any society is an important basis of its politics. The increasing rate of state/regionalism affects the process of nation building and national integration in inverse proportion.

Language is a socio-cultural component through which human beings express themselves. Language is a powerful medium of communication in human society. It is the basis of the socio-cultural system. Language not only preserves the culture but also develops it and transmits it to the new generation. Different languages in different parts of India and in different parts of a region due to natural diversity

And dialects are found. At present, 22 recognized languages have been mentioned in the Constitution of India, apart from this 1,652 languages are spoken. Apart from this, there are other languages and dialects in India which have some literature, although most of the languages are scriptless, but some have scripts, and rich literature too. It means to say that there is a lot of linguistic diversity in our country and society.

During the British rule, English was made the medium of education because on the one hand, the British wanted to create a clerical class to work in the offices through it, and on the other, they wanted to make their rule more powerful by influencing the Indian elite. Were. English language started being used as the language of communication and work in the whole country. Although India’s socio-cultural and political


English language had become an important language in the regions, yet it could not become the language of the people. After independence, Hindi language was accepted as the official language of the Indian Union, not only this, in 1956 the states were reorganized on the basis of language. Due to this, the public got knowledge of their own language and instead of Hindi, they got engaged in the study or growth of their own language.


Due to this, regionalism and linguistic narrowness developed. There has been continuous opposition to making Hindi the national language in non-Hindi states. In 1960-61 Punjab, West Bengal and Assam passed laws related to making Punjabi, Bengali and Assamese the official languages of the state respectively and for their development by not accepting Hindi language. On 3 October 1961, Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Aligarh Muslim University, which soon spread to other parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. The government convened a National Integration Conference of prominent politicians, educationists and scientists from 28 September to 1 October 1961, which recommended the adoption of a three-linguistic formula for secondary education throughout the country. It was also recommended by this conference that in place of English language in universities, regional languages should be made the medium of education and for the time being, English should be kept as the link language of India. Keeping the linguistic tension in front, the government presented the Official Language Bill in 1963, in which apart from English, Hindi should also be used in Parliament and all other works (in which earlier English was used) and states and any other language other than Hindi.

In case of adoption of the language, there was a provision to publish Hindi and English translation also.

In protest against the making of Hindi as the official language, agitations again started in the southern states. This

Due to the announcement that Hindi will be the official language from 26 January 1965, a lot of anger spread among the students, so in December 1967, amendments had to be made in the Official Language Act. There have been disturbances in the states against the language policy of the government. First, anti-English protests were held in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra, and then on 18 December 1967, the anti-Hindi movement started in Madras, which soon spread to Andhra Pradesh and Mysore. In 1970, the government again followed the three language formula.

Even today, on the basis of language, India is divided into North and South India because strong sentiments are still found among people against Hindi imperialism in southern states. In Uttar Pradesh, many public meetings were organized to protest against keeping Urdu as the second language of the state. due to linguistic constraints

The concept of ‘Son of the Earth’ was born. This means that the appointment to government and non-government posts should be done only by the person who knows the regional language. For this reason, even till today, the southern states are given an assurance not to speak Hindi in the Lok Sabha elections. To keep language separate from politics

None of the suggestions have been found to be effective so far.

After globalization and information revolution in the 90s, the situation has changed somewhat. Globalization has given recognition to English to be given the place of global language. At present, a feeling of anti-English has arisen in North India and the emerging middle class has accepted English and English has attained the status of the language of higher education, business and employment. Similarly, information revolution and television revolution have given Hindi the place of All India link language. Now there is no strong opposition to Hindi in South India, but gradually Hindi is changing into the language of the market. but the language issue


Still remains sensitive to politics. For example, in 2013, when the Union Public Service Commission presented its amendment to make English compulsory in the Civil Services Examinations, it became a major political issue. And immediately the pressure groups became active and changed the revision of importance of English language in UPSC examination.

In short, linguisticism no longer exists as a threat to national integration. It has been diluted by the increasing rate of geographical and social mobility. But language remains a sensitive issue for politics.


The current political processes in the Indian society are related to the long two hundred years of British rule and the freedom struggle to get rid of it. Parliamentary democracy, multi-party political system, universal adult franchise, and decentralization of power are the main factors of current political processes. These political processes have been continuously influenced by the basic determinants of Indian society such as caste, religious diversity, multilingual linguistic groups and geographical diversity. According to social scientists, diversities have mostly negatively affected political processes. The process of integration and nation building in a diverse society is a challenging task, but India’s liberal democratic system has established a flexible adjustment with diversities. Diversity like caste has become a companion of democracy and the process of nation building goes on continuously despite the challenges.


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