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Role is a dynamic or behavioral aspect of a status.  Status are assumed while roles are performed.  The way a person fulfills the responsibilities related to a status and consumes the facilities and features related to it is called a role.  For example, the office of the President is a status quo.  There are some responsibilities and duties related to this situation, it is the role of the President, the person who plays the role of the President also has some privileges and privileges.  Some important definitions

 Linton – The term role refers to a particular situation, thus the role includes all the attitudes social values ​​and behaviors that society or individuals related to a particular situation have to offer.

  Elliott and Merrill – “Role is the task that an individual plays according to each situation. Fairchild – Role is the expected function or behavior of a person in a group as defined by the group or culture.”


 Ogburn and Nimkaf – “Role is a sum of social expectations and behavior patterns related to a specific position in a group. It includes both duties and facilities.”


 Lundberg – ‘Social role is the pattern of expected behavior from an individual in a group or situation.


Ginsburg – Status is a position, while role is the anticipated way to fulfill it.

  Kimbal Young – ‘The person who does or does work, we call it role.


Thus it is clear that due to holding a position, the type of work that society expects of a person is called a role.  Linton considers the role to be a behavioral and dynamic aspect of the situation.




No situation in society is single or one-sided, its importance is relative to anyone. When we say a teacher, he is ready to say that there is a student too.  The teacher alone does not have any status, in the same way that no role in society is single and unilateral, each role is important only in the context of other situations and roles.  This can be explained by the following formula.


Characteristics of Role


Following are some of the main features of the role –

1 roles are rooted in status.  There can be no discussion of the role keeping the situation separate.

The 2nd role is not in zero.  It has a strong, cultural aspect.  This is the criterion of cultural aspect.  Therefore, whatever the role is, the norms of society are associated with it.

There is a system of punishment in 3 criteria.  This arrangement is both formal and informal.  This means that if the role was not fulfilled in any situation, then the punishment system is also associated with it.  If doctors or teachers do not perform their role properly, that is, they ignore the norms of culture, then such doctors are condemned as punishment system.  And sometimes they are claimed as a formality.  The basis of the claim is that the doctor had acted negligently and therefore the patient had to bear the brunt clearly in the role.

4 Role is not unilateral, it is always relative.

5 When the situation is not rooted, it is dynamic, then in this sense roles also move.  Therefore, both status and role are dynamic.  Some key concepts related to the role emanthan


1 Ralph Linton – Divide the roles into two parts.

 (A) The role assigned or assigned or related to the given status is called the assigned role.

  (B) Achieved Role The role related to earned status is called earned role.

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 2 Banton mentioned three roles.

  1. Basic Role – Under primitive society it is quite difficult to separate one role from another. Different types of roles are inter-related and dependent in such a way that basic roles predominate in society.  Many people play the same role simultaneously.  And there is no role duality between them.  The distribution of roles in a subfamily is usually based on age or sexuality.


  1. Independent Role – As the society develops, different roles are separated from each other. In modern society, the nature of roles change in such a way that the interdependencies between different roles are reduced.  In short, it is said that primitive society has a primitive role in primitive society.  So with the development of independent roles in modern society, society moves from basic role to independent role.
  2. General Role – The situation between the two.



  SF Nadel has divided the roles into two parts.

  (A) Relational role – Relational role is always associated with complementary role.  For example, a person’s role as a husband is possible only when he has a wife.

 (B) Non-relational role – There are some roles which do not require any special roles.  Just as the role of a fakir, monk, poet or scholar is not played in relation to any other role, they are independent roles which are known as non-relational roles.


 Important Concepts Related To Status And Role –


 1 Status – Set : RK Merton No person can ever have only one status, he is born with many situations with his birth.  Apart from this, he attains many other conditions through his actions or efforts, if the person’s conferred and earned status is added together then it is called ‘status package’.  Such as Mr. X ‘letter, brother, husband, friend, doctor and social worker, if all these conditions are added, then it will become the status of Mr.’ x ‘.

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  2 Multiple – Role  – R. K Merton The dynamic side of the status package is called Bahl role.  A person has many conditions (status group).  Naturally, there will be many roles related to those situations.  In this way a person discharges his roles towards his children from many situations, serves the public from the position of a doctor, helps friends from the position of a friend, etc. Thus if one joins the roles of Mr. ‘x’  It would be said that Shri ‘x’ plays multiple roles, there is a difference between multiple roles and roles – it is necessary to understand it properly.


3 Role – Set Assumption – R. K. Merton. It differs from various flaws.  Role compilation refers to the discharge of multiple malfunctions from a single position.  A doctor treats males.  Take information about medicines from Medical Representative (MR).  Physicians go into the meeting of association etc. This is the role – packages.


 4 Role Conflict – R. K. Merton When a person’s two roles seem contradictory to expect, they are called Bhamika – Struggle as if Mr. ‘x’ is the father and the doctor also if his son.  Expect him to take her to show him Sunday’s fair.  While going to the fair, a call is received from his hospital that a patient has become unconscious, in such a situation Mr. X will be caught in the role of struggle to discharge the role of father or doctor.  No matter how systematic or stable a person is in the world, he must fall into the role struggle.  Because a person has multiple roles associated with all situations, another person is connected at one end of those roles.  Therefore, he will only make expectations.  Probably, in the same way, people will not get involved in Bhoomika Duality which has no expectations of anyone.  But in practice its potential seems very limited.

  5 Role Taking Concept – G. H. Meed As soon as a person receives a position, he / she also has clear role expectations.  The person is expected to take those roles, if the person does the same, then it is called the role.  For example, if a person is given a student status, he is also expected to read diligently if the student takes the role of reading that he has to study a lot.  This will be called the role-eclipse.


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