Caste and class

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There are many theories about the construction of the word ‘caste’.  The classical country of caste is India.  In context, the word ‘caste’ in Hindi is derived from the ‘Jan’ metal in Sanskrit, which means ‘to be born’ or ‘to generate’.  Thus, things with the same quality – religion from birth are called a caste.  In this view, caste is not only in humans but also in plants and roots.  According to another belief, among the Europeans, the Portuguese first used the word Caste ‘Cast’ which is derived from the Portuguese word Castra ‘Castra’ meaning ‘dynasty’ or ‘race’.  The word ‘Cast’ also has a close relation to the Latin word Castus ‘Castus’ which means ‘perfect’ or ‘unrefined’.  Thus, the word etymologically, caste expresses a class whose principal lineage or race is precision or immorality, which is entirely based on genetics.  It is clear that a society is affected by this (caste) system, if this society is divided into many conflicting groups which are genetically specialized and categorized in an organized way – if, in principle, this (system) does not accept new persons  She does neither accept blood nor mix and change of muscles.  Many scholars have considered caste or varna to be synonymous with each other, but in reality it is not suitable.  Although caste originated through varna system, there are enough references to this.


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Caste: Functions or Merits


Caste-system has played a very important role in the preservation and promotion of Indian society, however, in the process of thousands of years of development, today this practice has become such a box of faults which is the demand of the present era.  Only legal and administrative efforts will not be enough in this direction.  As long as educational development and other measures do not instill a sense of hatred against the caste-system among the Hindu people, this corrupt practice will not allow our society and nation to get organized.  When we talk about the benefits of ji-jati, our intentions are mostly for its ideal nature and form.  The notable works that have made the caste-system worthy of praise are mainly the following


 Protection of personal discipline and respect – Caste rules keep a person in discipline and prevent him from doing undesirable and antisocial actions.  Undesirable person is excluded from caste.  In this way, caste performs the function of social control.


 Mental protection of members – The caste system provides mental protection to its members.  In every caste, the collective spirit is extremely effective.  Caste helps human beings in difficult circumstances.  On the basis of the collective power of caste, one experiences mental security.  Caste confers social status to every person.  A person does not have to bear any mental trouble because everything is predetermined for him.  He does not have to get into a psychological mess to decide the path, only by walking on a certain path does ultimate religion occur.


  Cooperation in the group – Caste – Bandhan binds a particular group to the thread of unity.  In a particular caste group, the person considers himself safe and it is his duty to be helpful towards each other.  Ethnic unity has protected individuals from many crises and has given attention to many welfare works like child welfare, management of caste scholars, ethnic hospices etc.


  Keeping the business characteristics secret – In ancient times, caste used to follow a certain occupation and was considered expert in it.  No caste inaugurated its business secrets to other caste.  Members of the caste had to keep commercial secrets essentially secret.  The caste does not want to transfer its special skills to another caste.  At the same time, caste continued to impart the training of its special occupation to its people on the basis of natural environment.


  Determining social status – Under the caste-system, a certain social status is prescribed for a particular community, in which the status of each is ensured in the propagation phase.  It is clear from all these works of caste that caste-system is not payable as its exposition.  Unfortunately, all these benefits of caste-system today become a story of the past.  The caste-system created with good motives is in front of us today in a very sickening manner.  Praj has lost so much blame in the caste system that we want to eradicate it.  Dr.  In the words of Radhakrishnan, “Unfortunately the same caste-system which was developed as a means of protecting the social organization from being destroyed is becoming a hindrance in its progress today.”


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 Protection of society, civilization and culture – caste system has protected Hindu society and Hindu culture.  Even after the political upheavals, wars and revolutions, the caste-system remained secure due to caste-system and the four major organs of the Hindu caste – Brahmin Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra – remained distinct cultural elements.  This practice has always opposed the conversion and thus the food, food, living, dress, dress, marriage system and other rituals were protected among the legislative communities.  The caste-system kept the social tradition alive.  The foreign aggressors won the body of India but they could not win its mind.  The caste-system did the important work of keeping the diverse communities of Hindu-society united.  In the words of Farniwal, “Caste-system in India has given society a stage in which any community, whether ethnic or social or commercial or religious, maintains its distinct nature and separate authority.  Can make it fit as an associate part of the whole society. “According to Joad, the Mei caste system was in its best form a successful attempt to unite different ideas, different sections of this vast country.


  Caste-system served as a branch of the political system – In ancient times, when there was a lack of states like Praj, due to caste-system, all the people of the society performed their duties and remained disciplined.  Thus at that time, castes were the branches of political system which gave rise to the belief in democratic system in society.


 The system of simple division of labor in society – Huttan has written that it is due to the caste-system that all the work of Indian society, whether they are in the private sector or the government sector, goes on smoothly and people perform their tasks religious faith or  On the basis of ‘perception of karma’.  Members of the caste follow this belief and people perform their actions on the basis of religious belief or ‘belief in karma’.  Members of the caste assume that as a result of their past-life deeds, they have had to take birth in a particular family in this birth and have to do special work.  Due to this belief, they also continue to do dirty work and often do not think of rebelling against their position in society.  As a result, not only does one get rid of mental duality and despair, but social unity and peace also prevails.  Due to the implementation of the principle of division of labor in the caste-system, each caste gets skill in its particular work.  Today, even though the importance of this work has reduced, but due to the division of work in the past, the efficiency of work and business could be increased caste wise.  On the basis of caste-system, large unions were formed with the help of which good production was made.  They used to protect their brothers from outside competition.


Maintaining work intelligence, knowledge and progress – due to caste-system, professional intelligence was easily passed from one generation to the next.  Before a generation’s progress was wasted, it was available to the generation that got it.  The son of a carpenter became a skilled carpenter and the son of a weaver became a skilled weaver.  Thus, when there was no other means to preserve the increasing knowledge, then the caste-system took care of this knowledge and progress.  Kept it up.


 Maintaining purity of reproduction – According to Sijbik, the end marriage method found in the caste system does not result in purity of reproduction.  But it is difficult to agree with this view because due to marriage of different castes, defects related to inheritance arise.  Dr.  A silent work of caste-system has been mentioned by Majumdar and Madan.  As a result of end marriages, boys are more often than girls.  Thus people get mental peace due to caste-system.  Boys carry out the responsibility of maintaining the family continuity and to complete religious rituals like tarpan, pindadan etc.


The birth of high quality of civic qualities gave rise to a sense of brotherhood and harmony.  Humans of a caste join in roti, beti and hookah water and help each other when needed.  They consider the evil of caste as their evil.  In this way, the lofty ideas of love, service, sacrifice and democracy were strengthened by the caste-system.


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Demerits of Caste System


 Due to caste-system, rights, undertaking and important works are not encouraged – in caste-system, most people believe that their social status is determined by birth and how much hard work they do to progress.  It is difficult to be.  Due to the caste-system, Hindu pon did not pay attention to the many discoveries and important rights because in their view doing so was contrary to caste-religion and rules.


Hindu – weakening of society – caste-system has spread such a network of untouchability, discrimination and strict restrictions that a large number of Hindus became Muslims and Christians. By closing the doors of equality in their society, they were attracted to other religions  There was no choice but to abandon the Hindu religion for the caste-loving people. Rigid caste-system made about 30 – 35 percent of Hindus heretical.


  The cause of many social problems – child marriage, widow – marriage, noble – marriage, seniority – custom etc. Many problems have arisen due to caste-system.  Lastly, we would like to say that as a result of caste-system many disruptive elements have been active in the country from time to time and due to these trends, the country has experienced bitter times.  Due to caste divisions, we could not even protect our freedom.  Now we have a nation.  India is a nation from Kashmir to Kanyakumari and from Assam to Gujarat.  Only the spirit of one nation and one nationality can carry us forward. Only then can we stand on our feet, only then can we give a befitting reply to our enemies, only then can we secure the independence of the country and only then can we be so strong and capable that we can fight for justice and injustice in the world  To be able to counteract.  Our invaluable nationality is greatly threatened by casteism.  No matter how useful the caste-caste has been in ancient times, we should not be enamored with it, subject to any feeling today.  The caste-system has become so oppressed that it is best to renounce it, but the abandonment of this system alone is not a panacea of ​​our problems, losses.  It cannot be accepted that renunciation of caste-system will only eradicate the defects found in our social structure.  For this, we have to restructure at every initiative of individual and social life, adopt corrective approach in every field and re-evaluate the entire social structure.


   The decline of national unity – caste system has proved to be painful and destructive for the society and the nation.  Due to this, ethnic pride was born in our country rather than national pride.  Due to caste differences, the opposing aggressors could not be fought firmly.  The Sikhs demand their own Sikhistan due to its social strength and unity being divided among many small sections of the society, while the Maharashtrians and the Gujaratis made a separate demand for Gujarat.


 Due to the hindrance in the primary and intellectual progress of the society – caste – system, only the upper-caste people could get the opportunity for economic and intellectual progress and the Shudra people were deprived of it.  This is the reason why the children of backward and lower-caste sections of the society never got the facility of study and their talented and deserving children could not get in the light.  Thus, this practice took a toll on the foundation and level of the society.


 High – low, raga – malice, communalism and the development of non-caste feelings – the caste-system is basically non-caste.  It encourages inequality rather than equality.  Due to this, society has been divided into high and low and the basis of this high and low is birth, not karma or ability.  Due to this high and low level, a large section of the society has never been able to make educational, economic or social progress.  The caste-system gave rise to communalism and untouchability.  Due to this communalism, first India was in the clutches of foreign invaders and finally we were divided into two pieces.  The untouchability of caste-system created the problem of Harijan and this caste-system everywhere ignited a fierce flame of non-cooperation and malice.


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  Influence on politics – The caste-system mostly made the political future of independent and independent India messy and tarnished.  The history of independent India is witness to the fact that Indian voters think a lot about political problems from an ethnic perspective.  Even at the time of the formation of the government, ethnicity is not considered secondary because majority party has mites of ethnicity.  Many times administrative decisions are taken on the basis of caste.  In many respects, ‘the state of caste has become a state of caste and for caste’ instead of ‘the state of the people by the people and for the people’.  Popular government has become a new medium of caste competition.  The rival castes have taken membership of different political parties and have formed groups or separate factions.  The poison tree of ethnicity in politics is certainly very fatal for the democratic future of the country.


 Lack of military power – Due to caste system, the military power of the country got a big shock because the work of castes belonging to the same dynasty was deemed to protect the country, which led to the alienation of other castes.


Increase in superstition and orthodoxy – Caste rules, bye-laws and various religious rituals and customs gave great encouragement to superstition and orthodoxy in the society.  Due to this the person got frustrated in his freedom and had to live according to the caste restrictions and rules.


 All the primary means of the society cannot be taken full advantage of the caste-system – due to caste-system every profession is fixed.  It is not considered appropriate by a person to adopt a profession outside the caste.  A person of caste can neither leave the industry of his caste nor can change the means of earning his livelihood.  Therefore, due to caste-system all the primary means of the country cannot be fully taken advantage of.


 Caste system is the enemy of women-rights-caste-system is the enemy of women’s rights.  The degradation of women in our society is the result of this system to a large extent.  This practice does not give women any freedom in matters of marriage and does not consider them equal to men in other areas.


  Exploitation of poor and low-caste people – This practice leads to displeasure by the exploitation of poor and low-caste people.  By this practice, the rights of those people are taken away and their wishes are suppressed.


  False pride is born – In the caste-system, a sense of respect and pride is instilled in the upper caste people and in this practice diligence is not equally respected.


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In relation to the concept or definition of caste, it can be said that this is mainly a lesson of people whose membership is based on heredity.  It attains a certain place in the caste-stratum. A caste is not a community or a society in itself, but a community or a group of society whose society is a predetermined place and it is related to a certain occupation.  Some important definitions are as follows

  Herbert Risley, giving a definition of caste, wrote, “Caste is a collection of families or groups of families with the same name, which has its own tradition from a fictional ancestor, which may be a human or a deity.  Claims Genesis, which runs the same innate (ancestral) occupation and is considered a homogeneous community by those who are entitled to such decisions or votes. 5 things are clear from this definition – (i  ) Caste is a collective organization of many families, (ii) it has a name, (iii) each caste has a fictitious ancestor, (iv) it has a definite occupation and (v) it forms a homogeneous community.  Is known .

  According to Majumdar and Madan (D. N. Majumdar and T. N. Madan), “Caste is a closed class. It is clear from this definition that caste is based on birth. Hence the caste in which a person is born  We have to stay till the end. Under no circumstances can the membership of caste be changed. In this context, caste is closed class.

  Dutta (N. K. Dutta), defining caste as encompassing the maximum characteristics of caste, wrote, “Caste is a type of social group whose members do not marry outside their caste, restrictions on food, profession  There are definite, it is not possible to find an institutional division, it is not possible to change from one caste to another. This definition shows 6 characteristics of caste – (i) caste is a social group, (ii) caste is an endogamous group,  (iii) Caste has restrictions on food, (iv) Caste occupation is fixed, (v) High and low stratification is found in castes and (vi) Changes in caste membership are not possible.  On the basis of the above facts, it can be said that there is a system leading to caste stratification which is based on birth and prohibits food and marriage, occupation etc.





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Characteristics of caste


G.S. Ghurye) has discussed 6 characteristics of caste, on the basis of which it has been made more useful to understand caste.  These features are as follows

Segmental Division of Society: The caste system divides the society into certain segments.  The position, position and function of the members of each division is determined by birth.  And they have a community spirit.  Ethnic law is an ethical duty to follow.


 Hierarchy:  Under the caste-system, the status of each caste is one-to-one.  The Brahmins are at the top of this text and the sub-castes are untouchable castes.  These two people are bean jatiya.  Not only this .  There are many sub-castes within a caste and among them there are high and low


 Hereditary Nature of Occupation: The occupation of a person is determined by caste-occupation.  Therefore, in which caste a person is born, he has to adopt a person of the same caste.  There is no scope for any change in it.  Thus it can be said that caste is the predominant feature of traditional occupation.


Endogamous: According to the caste-system, members of the caste can establish their own caste or sub-caste, marriage-relationship.  Nobody dares to violate this rule.  Westermark considered the feature to be the ‘essence of the caste-system’.  The endogamous rule is still found in castes.  Thus, on the basis of the above description, it becomes clear that caste-system has been a clear and important basis of social stratification in Indian society.


 Restrictions on Fooding and Social Interecourse: There is a ban on food and social relations in the caste-system.  Often, people of one caste do not accept food in the hands of lower castes.  Along with this, many restrictions related to raw and firm food are seen.  Similarly, the spirit of untouchability is found in the context of social interaction and interaction.


 Social and Religious Disabilities: A special difference is seen in the polices in the caste-system.  On the one hand, the upper castes do not have the same facilities and rights as the lower castes in the areas of life.  Brahman is full of many rights in social, religious, economic and other areas.  At the same time, untouchable castes are denied even public facilities and rights.  Tax is also seen in rural areas.


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There is a group of individuals who have the same social status.  Many situations are found in every society.  As a result, many classes are also found according to them.  When a society is divided into different groups on any basis other than birth, each group is called a class.  Some important definitions are as follows

Maclver and Page, defining class, wrote, ‘Social class is that part of the community which is different from the rest on the basis of social status.  “It is clear from this definition that the basis of class is social status. That is, people of similar status form a class which is different from other classes.


In the words of Ginsberg, “Class can be called a group of individuals which are similar on the basis of business, money, education, lifestyle, ideas, sentiment, attitude and behavior, or one of these two grounds.”  But they should have a consciousness of equality which makes them realize one of their group or class. “Three things are clear from this definition. Class is a group of individuals, (ii) Class – There are many basis of construction – business, money, education  , Lifestyle and attitude etc. and (iii) consciousness of class, which is called class consciousness.


Mawers and Engels wrote, ‘A class is formed by the joining of different individuals only when they fight against the other class as one class, otherwise they are opposing a datarey as being mutually competitive  Or dashman only.  “This definition makes it clear that the basis of class is conflict. That is, without conflict the speculation cannot be imagined. This conflict is based on economic interests. Based on the above definitions, one can say – class is such  There are groups which are based on social and elements and which have the qualities of class consciousness.



 Characteristics of class


  Definite Hierarchy – Social classes are divided into certain categories.  Some of these categories are ranked high and some are low.  Those who are upper class members have the least number of members but the highest prestige.  On the contrary, those who are members of lower class have more number of members, but they have the least importance and respect.  This type of situation has a natural consequence that upper class members often take pride in being lower than members of lower class.  In other words, social distance promotes noti.


 Achieved System: The basis of class is karma.  A person can be rich or poor, industrialist or labor, expert, professor, doctor, engineer or farmer on the strength of his work.  Accordingly, its square is formed.  This is how the class is earned.  A person achieves this through his efforts.


 Class Conflict: This feature has been mentioned by Marx.  Marx says that the struggle between classes is the element that makes sense of the existence of classes in society.  Without conflict, class cannot be imagined and this struggle is based on economic interests.  Thus, on the basis of the concept and characteristics of class, it is clear that class is a popular basis of social stratification.


  Hierarchy: A major feature of a class is called ‘stratification’.  This means that there is a category of classes in a society which consists of several classes from highest to lowest.  Clearly high and low levels are seen in these sections.  According to this version, differences in rank, prestige and facilities are seen.


  Feeling of Superiority – Inferiority: The feeling of high and low is seen in classes.  Members of one class have a feeling of highness or inferiority towards members of the other classes.  For example, this feeling towards each other is clearly seen between the rich and the poor.


  Common Life – Members of different sections of society live their own special way.  The way of life of the rich class differs from that of the middle class and the lower class.  The rich class takes pride in making more and more wastage.  The middle class is often stuck in stereotypes and practices and the way of the lower class is completely different from these two.


 Importance of Economic Basis – status is the most important function of class – construction.  Modern society is capitalist or technological.  In these societies there is no special relation with the membership of gender, pratu etc.  Economically, prosperity or inferiority keeps dividing people into upper class, middle and lower class.


   Openness and Shifting – The nature of classes is open.  This means that if a person is specially qualified or efficient, then he can join any class or can be a member of multiple classes at different authorities simultaneously.  To illustrate this situation, Botomore wrote that “whether or not social classes are relatively free, their authority is undeniably economic, but they are more than economic groups.” It is also common for social classes to fluctuate.  Any poor person can become financially rich and join the rich class.  Similarly, if the financial situation of a rich person falls completely, then he can slip from that class and go to the middle or lower class.  This change in class status is automatically tailored to the economic situation.


Achieved Membership- It is clear from the above mentioned fourth and fifth feature of the social class that the membership of the class depends not only on birth but also on the ability, efficiency and economic prosperity.  A person has to be active for the membership of the class.  If a person belongs to a lower class, then he / she has to prove his / her ability to enter the higher class.  Permanently a person is able to live in the same class according to which he has merit.


 Essentiality of Classes – – – The presence of classes in society is mandatory.  Not all people are equal in terms of ability, efficiency, interest, intelligence.  Therefore, it is natural that individuals have their own.  You should get the position and honors according to your ability.  Only when this happens, the social system can remain permanently.  Marxism envisages a classless society.  But it is sure that such a society can never be established.


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 Less Stability – Money, education, business system are of temporary nature, so the class system based on them is also a stable assumption.  One who is rich today may be poor tomorrow.


Sub-classes – Social class consists of sub-classes under each class.  For example, in the rich class the poti-class based on the right over money.  Lakhpati-class Many sub-classes etc. are found.


   Life Chances – Max Weber has pointed to ‘Life Chance’, a feature of the class.  Accordingly, “We can call a group when its members have equal opportunities for certain life opportunities.”


  Class Situation – Max Weaver has also attracted attention towards this feature, which is related to life opportunity.  The absence or absence of property in the possession of a class leads to a specific situation in which the class resides.  If the members of the class have property, then naturally they will get more earning, more purchasing and higher living standards.  These opportunities jointly will create a specific situation in which members of that class will have to reside.  This is the class: situation.


 Common Life Style: Similarity is seen in the lifestyle of the members of one class which is also different from other classes on the other side.  There is a lot of similarity in the clothes, food, house design, way of living and manner of the people of a class.  Also, the family and marital relations of the members of a class are also limited to their class groups.


 Class-consciousness: Class-consciousness is the basic feature of class.  This means that members of each class have a sense of how their socio-economic-political status and reputation is compared to other classes.  It is this spirit that binds members of a class together.


 Restricted Social Relations: The social relations of members of a class are usually limited to their class.  They eat – drink, get up – sit and have other interactive relationships with the people of their class.  Also, they maintain a certain social distance from other classes.  This is the limitation of social relations, which is a special feature of class.


  Mobility: A special feature of the class is mobility.  It is not based on birth, rather it is based on merit, ability i.e. workability.  Consequently, a member of a lower class can join the higher class on the strength of his ability and ability.  In the same way a person can go to the bottom class through failure.  Thus there is impatience in the nature of classes.  (




 Distinction between Caste and Class



‘(1) The caste-system is a closed class while the class-inspiration is an open or free class.  The social status in a caste is determined by birth and there is no opportunity to join any other caste.  In contrast, inequalities of human beings are recognized in the class system.  In this, the person is given equal opportunities for progress.  A person can enter from one class to another depending on his qualifications.


2 Caste neglects individual ability and competence.  The situation in the square is exactly the opposite.  On the strength of his ability, a person can reach the higher class of society.

  1. Caste is seen as a closed system of stratification and class as an empty system. Generally the nature of classes is understood to be open but in reality each class prevents a member of the lower class from coming into his class and usually establishes the relationship with the members of his class.  Practically a policy of class-intermarriage is also adopted among different classes.  This is why some scholars have not accepted any fundamental distinction between caste and class.  Nevertheless it is certain that in its nature, actions and prohibitions there are different perceptions of caste and class which can be understood as follows


4.Janity is a closed form of social stratification whereas class has openness.  No person, except one caste, can take membership of another caste.  The rules of each caste also differ from other castes.  In contrast, the door to membership of the class is open to all.  A person can become a member of any class according to his wealth, ability, skill.


  1. Birth of caste membership is birth. Once a person is born into a caste, he remains a member of that caste for a lifetime.  But the membership of a class is based on the actions and efforts of the individual and he can change his class by his ability.


  1. One does not have to try to get membership of caste but it is given by the society. This is why there is stability in caste.  On the other hand, the membership of the class is the result of the individual’s personal efforts, and the change in these efforts also changes the membership of the class.


.  7. Each caste has a certain occupation and it is the moral duty of the members of that caste to earn a livelihood by it.  But in class system, a member can choose any business according to his interest and means.


.  8. Each caste necessarily obliges its members to establish marriage relations under their own caste.  In contrast, there is no fixed rule of this kind in class.  Despite this, members of one class try to establish marriage relations within their class.  6.  The basis of highness in class is economic while the level of caste is determined by society.  Many religious and cultural beliefs are the basis of the formation of castes.  From this perspective, there is a system of many rules related to caste purity and impurity.  Class-system does not include any kind of beliefs related to purity or impurity.


  1. In the caste-system, a lot of business is decided from birth. There is freedom to choose the occupation according to the class order.  .


  1. Membership of caste is born. He gets it automatically from the society.  In contrast, membership of the class is earned.  A person can enter from one class to another with his own efforts.


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