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The term ‘community’ is used in a special sense under Sociology.  A community is a large human group that inhabits a certain geographical area.  It is a tangible organization.  It is not built suddenly or spontaneously and is not deliberate and according to plan.  After a long period, it develops on its own.  People live in one place, there is mutual interaction between them.  As a result, an organization is formed.  People also need this organization.  Under the community, the social, economic, family, religious and entertainment needs of the people are met, due to which people live in the community.  People of the community live in a certain geographical area, due to which there is mutual contact and direct relationship between them.  Everyone knows each other through face-to-face relationships.  All activities of the person’s life – all activities, all activities take place in the community.  The community has considerable control over the lives of its members.  It directly controls the behavior of the person.  We have a feeling among all the members.  They all support each other in sorrow and happiness.  The community belongs to a certain geographical area, but with the development of civilization, the perception of the community also expands.  Vogardes says that the idea of ​​community starts from the neighborhood and reaches the whole world.  In sociology, cow, kaswa, city, metropolis and country are also considered as communities.  They all belong to a certain geographical area.  Residents here depend on each other to fulfill their objectives.  A feeling of cooperation and security is inherent among them.  The word ‘community’ is the Hindi version of ‘community’ in English.  If we pay attention to its literal meaning, then you will find that this word (Community) is made up of the sum of two Latin words ‘Com’ and ‘Munis’.  Com means’ Together ‘or together’ and Munis means’ serving ‘.  Mixing of both means serving together.  Here the definitions of some scholars are mentioned.  Is going .

Bogardus wrote in his definition, “Community is a social group living in a certain area in which some sense of hum is found”. In this definition, Bogardus emphasizes three major elements – (1) social groups.  (i) certain area and (iii) sense of us.

According to Kingsley Davis, “The community is the smallest regional group that encompasses all aspects of social life.”  “In his definition, Davis has described a community as a group that resides in a particular area. All aspects of their social life fall within it. The main three grounds of this definition are -) a group of individuals.  And (iii) command of all aspects of social life.

In the words of Augerne and Nimkoff, the entire organization of social life within a limited area is called a community.  This definition proves that the community belongs to a limited area or territory in which all the organizations of social life come.

According to Kimbal Young, “a community is a group, which lives in an area subject to the same culture and has some common geographical centers for its major functions.”  Like other definitions, it emphasizes fixed area.  Additionally this definition discusses similar culture.  That is, people of the same culture live in a community.  Due to the same culture, their ideals and values ​​are also the same.

According to Mechiver and Page, “Community is an area of ​​social life that is identified by the amount of socialcoherence.”  It is clear from this definition that community is an area of ​​social life in which special relationships are found between people and because of this affiliation it seems to be separate from other groups.  Members of a community are related to each other due to similar attitudes, behaviors and cultural characteristics.

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Based on the above definitions given by various scholars, we come to the conclusion that the community is a group,

  1. It is located on a certain terrain,
  2. There is a ‘feeling of hum’ among them.
  3. There is a feeling of mutual dependence.

  4 There is organization of all aspects of life under the community.

  1. They have a common culture.
  2. Their ideals and values ​​are also the same,




 Characteristics of community


Different features have been highlighted in relation to community from different sociologists.  Some took the ‘local area’ and ‘communal spirit’ as a specialty, while some described normal life as the specialty of the community.  Some people have considered the same culture and auto development as their specialty.  Some of the salient features of the community are being mentioned based on the views of various sociologists.

  1. Definite Geographical Area -The second major base of the community is the definite geographical area. A community cannot be imagined without a definite geographical area.  A group is also called a community when it is settled in a particular area.  Due to long-term stay in a particular area, there is a very close relationship between them and a sense of belongingness is found in the people.  There is a face-to-face relationship between them.  This relationship is informal.  People have direct interactions.  People living under certain geographical boundaries often help each other in meeting their needs.  In relation to this, McIver and Page have said that this limited geographical area is the area of ​​total living for the members of the community.  The village of India is the best example of this.  Its residents spend their entire lives under this limit.  Due to industrialization and development in the means of transport, nowadays sociologists do not consider it necessary to have a certain area for the community.  But this has not been proved by the facts.  The connection of the village has been linked to a wider area by means of communication, but the importance of the regional border has not decreased.  They have formal contact with the outside areas, but only have informal relations in a limited area of ​​the community.  This makes it clear that a certain geographical area is an essential element of the community.  It is necessary to mention here that the regional base alone is not sufficient for the community.  For this, additional close relationship, sense of belongingness and social interaction is necessary.  A city has a definite area of ​​the state and the country, but its members do not have any affinity and direct relationship in social relations.  Therefore, it cannot be called community.
  2. Community Sentiment– The third essential element of community is community spirit. Communal sentiment means ‘we feeling’.  In a certain geographical area, a group is special and if there is a lack of ‘we’ feeling among them, then it cannot be called a community.  After living in a certain area for a long time, a sense of mutual sympathy and cooperation develops among their residents.  A sense of belongingness develops among the people.  People start killing their own happiness and sorrow for other’s happiness.  There is a consciousness of the feeling of ‘we are all one’ in individuals.  Community spirit motivates individuals to interact, communicate and interact with each other.  This is the reason that when we go out for a long period of time and suddenly there is a person of our community, there is great happiness.  On meeting him, everyone asks for news of his area and gets ready to help.


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Community sentiment is expressed in three forms – first we express (we sense), second sense of obligation (role sense) and third sense of dependence (dependency feeling)


  1. The We Feelings: Under the feeling of us, the feeling of us has special importance.  It is because of this spirit that all members of the community are connected to each other.  People consider everything in the community as their own.  No person thinks only of his own interest.  Everyone’s interest is in the interest of everyone.  Everyone in the community participates in each other’s happiness and sorrow.  The spirit of us is a psychological element.  Because of this, people have a sense of your mainstream and brotherhood.  People are ready to die for each other.  Therefore, due to this feeling, the formula of communityism remains.  (ii) A sense of responsibility (role sense) – Under the community sentiment lies a sense of collective responsibility.  The responsibility of any task is not the responsibility of any one person.  All members of the community are responsible for this.  The basic reason for this is that we have a sense of belonging among the community members.  Community work is the collective work that all members do together.  Such people do not compel but live in the community – it becomes their habit.  They contribute to the work of the community consciously or unconsciously without any pressure.  Each person in the community has their own position and role (position and role) and they perform their roles according to their position.  They do not forget the community responsibility while performing their roles.  This maintains a spirit of mutual support, love and belongingness which is the basis of community life.


  1. Sense of dependence (feeling of dependency) – The feeling of interdependence is the stool base of community spirit. Each person is dependent and dependent on each other.  Everyone has their own company, whose fulfillment is not possible alone.  He has to depend on other people to fulfill various needs.  All members of the community depend on each other to meet their needs.  They help and support other members in a spirit of interdependence.  That is, the feeling of dependency binds them into a formula.  Along with development, the organization of human beings is increasing day by day.  These requirements are not possible within a community.  Hence, a community now has to depend on other societies and communities.  Due to division of labor and specialization, many people feel happy in creating an object.  Specialization (specialization) is taking place in every field due to which one person cannot achieve proficiency in many fields.  As a result, a person has to depend a lot to fulfill his needs.  Geographical and local distance between different communities has been reduced due to development in convenience of traffic and means of communication.  Nita is increasing between village – village, city – city, nation – nation.  Each nation of the world has come to depend on different nations for its needs.  From this perspective, the idea of ​​community spirit starts from the neighborhood and spreads to the whole world.
  2. Group of Individuals – For any community it is necessary to have individuals. In the absence of individuals, no group can be formed.  It is necessary to have a group to build a community.  The size of the group should be such that the community members can often meet all the needs.  They fulfill their needs through mutual cooperation.  The number of people in a village is so much that by which they prepare almost everything they need.  The needs of the people in the village are of such a nature that they themselves produce or make them.  The feeling of mutual cooperation between them is strong.  Hence the first major basis of the community is the group of individuals.
  3. Common Life – The first feature of the community is that its members lead a normal life. That is, their language, manner of behavior, means of entertainment, means of education, security and fundamental problems are common.  The people of the community settled in a certain area speak the same language.  Their modalities, way of getting up, dressing, etc. are also common.  The means of education and its centers are also common, where all people receive education.  Characteristics of the community People of the community do not talk about personal safety.  There are no (1) normal life differences or differences among themselves.  If it happens, they collectively settle it.  When outside, any objections come over the community.  So every person considers their safety in the safety of the community itself.  In all aspects, their basic and basic problems are also common due to leading a normal life.  It means to say that any problem is not a problem of a person but a problem of a particular community.  There is also a special difference in the economic condition of its people.  Their requirements are also almost normal and there is not much difference in the manner of their fulfillment.  It is clear from all these things that the people of the community have a normal life.
  4. Common Norms – There are general rules for all members of the community. The rules related to all aspects of life are the same for everyone. It is not that some people believe him and treat him favorably and others do not adopt him.  Generally, the behavior of the people of the community is based on tradition and tradition.  Anyone its can not violate.  They have deep faith in religion.  They would do any work against religion.  Religion is very important in their lives.  Through religion, custom, tradition, faith and morality, the community controls the behavior of its members.  Each community has its own general rules and expects its members to behave in a manner that suits them.  Generally, the behavior of all the members is guided and controlled by normal rules.  Due to following these common rules, equality is seen in the lives of the people of a community.  As a result, the feeling of mutual cooperation increases.


  1. Specific Culture – The community has its own specific culture. Due to this cultural distinctiveness, one community appears to be separate from another community.  The geographical and natural conditions of each community are different.  Due to this their needs also vary from one community to another.  Due to different requirements, the rules and methods of fulfilling them also vary.  Culture has the ability to fulfill needs.  This is why the culture of one community is distinct and distinct from the culture of another community.  The community has a culture suited to natural and geographical conditions.  A peculiarity of culture is transferred from one generation to another.  Consequently in the knowledge, belief, art, tradition, religion, personality and habits of all members of a community.  Equality is seen which is a symbol of community spirit.



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Some Examples of Borderline Communities



The confinement is considered by some scholars as community.  Some key elements and characteristics of the community are found in the prison, on the basis of which the community is called.  Like a community, the prison is located in a certain geographical area.  Community spirit is also found among its members.  These people lead a normal life.  They have general rules and also have a special culture.  On the basis of these characteristics, the maker also considered the prison as a community.  Lacan cannot be called this community.  There is also lack of some key features in the prison which is as follows

  1. The prison house does not develop automatically.  It is designed to solve crime related problems 2.  The members who lead a normal life under imprisonment are imposed on them.  They do not do this voluntarily or on the basis of equality.  They are obliged to follow the general rules.  Members who do not follow these general rules have to face severe punishment.
  2. The membership of the prison is temporary.  At the end of the sentence period, its members leave the current community prison.
  3. The membership of the prison is not compulsory.  A person who is not a criminal or is not caught for committing a crime does not live in a prison.  It means to say that the membership of the prison house is not mandatory in the same way as the membership of the community is compulsory and the person remains a member of some or the other community to fulfill his needs.  On the basis of all these things, the prison house cannot be considered a community.  It would be difficult to call any group a community based on appropriate considerations and examples.





In the primitive society, there is no question whether there is a neighborhood or not.  This is to say that the predominant feature of the community is found in the neighborhoods in the village and in the primitive society.  There is a close relationship between them, mutual interaction and community feeling is also found.  I have been living from generation to generation in a certain way.  Hence, they will be called as Samadya.  But it is difficult to call them neighborhoods in the present urban or urban areas.  The main reason is as follows

  1. People living in urban and industrial areas are not aware of their neighborhood.  There is a lack of familiarity or relationship between them.

2 .  People living in these areas do not have a normal life.  There is a lot of difference in their culture, customs, manner of behavior etc.  Their purpose and requirements also vary.

  1. The neighborhoods in urban and modern areas do not develop automatically.  That is to say, aroused by will or planning.  Because of this a close relationship does not develop in them.
  2. Their entire life activities are not completed in the neighborhood.  They have to go outside for this.  They all work separately in different places.  There is no relation between them.  All people work related to their interests.
  3. Near urban and industrial areas – There are no general rules in the neighborhood through which their behavior can be controlled.  Along with this, there is a lack of role feeling in them.
  4. In addition, there is considerable variation in the economic status and standard of living of the members of the neighborhoods in these areas.  On the one side, a family is very rich and on the other side there is a poor or middle class.  Similarly, a family is very educated – on the other hand there are less educated people.  The level of living also varies, because these people come from different places and live.  Therefore, their living conditions also bear the impression of the previous area from where these people live.  Thus a neighborhood based on these characteristics cannot be called a community.



– Caste system is the mainstay of Indian social system.  Many types of people are found in the society.  Every caste gets a place and position in its society and also has some functions.  There are also some methods and rules related to caste which their members have to follow.  Members of an Ati feel close with other members of their caste.  There is a feeling of ‘Hum’ among them.  On the basis of this, a member of an Ati-special favors people of his own caste and opposes other castes.  That is, members of one caste pay attention to the interests of their caste and oppose the interests of another caste.  This feeling.  It is called ‘Castism’.  Based on this, caste cannot be called a community.  Caste has many S qualities which cause confusion in calling it a community.  First, caste members live on a certain geographical area.  People of one caste live in different places.  They do not have a face-to-face relationship.  .  Second, there is a considerable effect on the economic status and standard of living among the members of a caste.  Variations cannot be found.  Caste society, which is the ideal example of community, is also undergoing changes in the present situation.  Nahat – Se factors that have changed or reduced community spirit.  Villages or tribal communities have also started relying on other areas to fulfill their needs.  This has also affected their affinity.  Therefore, it is not fair to say whether any area has a sudden community.  It is a figurative term.  Any group can be considered a purely community shower.



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