Mosca Robert mitchells

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Mosca Robert mitchells

Mosca tried to develop Pareto’s elite theory (which is mainly social psychological) from the point of view of a political scientist and defined the ruling class more clearly. Tried to create new science.

According to Mosca, there is one element in all types of political organizations or governance which we can see even if we take a bird’s eye view. This element is the division of every society into two classes – first, the ruling class, that is, the one who rules, and second, the ruled class, that is, that which is ruled.

According to Mosca, the following three major differences are found between the elite (which he calls the ruling class) and the common people –

The number of people belonging to the ruling class is small, that is, they are in the minority, while the ruled class is in the majority.
All political work is performed by the ruling class and not by the ruled class, and
All the power is concentrated in the hands of the ruling class and this class enjoys the benefits of the power, while on the contrary, the ruled class is directed and controlled by the ruling class.


Apart from making a distinction between the ruling class and the common people, Mosca has also tried to tell from where the power comes to the ruling class, that is, how this class rules the masses. The main source of the power of the ruling class is its being organized and being superior to others in terms of strength. The ruling class is organized because it is a minority and at the same time superior. In the words of Mosca, the members of the minority ruling class must have some or the other quality which is very prestigious or very influential in their society, even if that quality is real or just a show.

On the basis of the above discussion, we can say that Mosca has described the following characteristics of the ruling class as important.


Those persons who rule are included in the ruling class.

2. The ruling class is a minority.

The ruling class enjoys the benefits of power and deprives the ruled class of the same.

The ruling class represents the interests of important and influential groups in the society.

The ruling class is closely associated with the society through the new middle class.

The ruling class is organized.

The ruling class performs all the political functions.


A new thing in Mosca’s elite theory is that he has placed managers, white-collar employees, scientists and engineers, scholars and intellectuals in the new middle class and according to him, through this class only the elite class is connected to the common people. The stability of a political organization depends on the moral, intellectual or functional level of this class.

Mosca has also presented an explanation of the operation of elites similar to Pareto, whose basis is social rather than psychological. In his words, if a new source of wealth emerges in the society or the practical importance of knowledge increases, an old religion gets destroyed and a new religion develops or if a new ideology spreads in the society, then At the same time, far-reaching disharmony arises in the ruling class, under the lower level.


An instructive minority develops which struggles with the ruling class to share the power of the legitimate government. Therefore, Mosca has also explained the operation of elites like Pareto by mutual struggle between the elites who came from the lowest level and the elites themselves.


The reason why Mosca did not give importance to psychological traits was his belief that individualistic qualities originate on the basis of social qualities.

Although Mosca’s ideas are similar to Karl Marx’s ideas to a great extent, yet, like Marx, he has also emphasized on moral and religious influences in social change, not only on the basis of economic basis. Baltimore has described Mosca’s theory of elites as more logical than Pareto’s theory, although even this does not explain the relationship found in the communication of groups and the rise and fall of elites.


Pareto is the first scholar who tried to differentiate between elite and common man. According to them all those successful people can be counted in the elite class who

At every level of activity and society the highest peaks are reached.



And even thieves and prostitutes have their own elite. According to Pareto, every society can be divided into two classes –


Robert mitchells

Robert Michels presented his theory in his book ‘Political Parties: Sociological Study of the Oligarchical of Modern Democracy’ (1915). Much of Michels’s analysis is still valid, and his work is still the reference point in the field of oligarchy research. Michels propounded the iron rule of oligarchy i.e. every macro group a

a oligarchy

is operated by


Sociologists have long been aware of the fact that in most large voluntary organizations, regardless of their formal structure or ideology, a small number of individuals (oligarchies)

seize power and remain there for a long time. More generally, it

The tendency of oligarchy rule is found in all those large organizations in which it is possible for most of the partners to remain relatively inactive. Thus, oligarchy is not only found in ‘service’ organizations such as Rotary, American Legion and Red Cross, but it is also ubiquitous in labor unions, which are not always voluntary organizations.

‘Oligarchy’ in the broadest sense can mean that the top leader always comes from a relatively small section of the organization’s total membership. In oligarchy, in large organizations with complex problems with difficult decisions, there is a tendency to hand over power to trained and experienced members only. Oligarchy can also mean that only a small group of people always remains in power. Although the individuals in the leadership change, the new leaders are chosen by the small congregation on the basis of rules that are somewhat consistent with the goals of the organization.


and frustrate the aspirations of more deserving individuals who might have been more loyal to those objectives. analyst of microsystems in the last two senses only

are interested.

There is no problem in understanding oligarchy in organizations whose accepted ideology is openly anti-democratic, such as fascist parties, or in organizations such as communist parties, in which ‘centrality’ is an incomplete form of democratic structure. But oligarchy is also found in the socialist parties, which are formally and in reality more powerful than other parties, which

In the subject, we know, it is more democratic. The number of top leaders in socialist parties

be on time take note









C. Wright Mills



C. Wright Mills has solved many difficulties related to the ruling class in his book ‘The Power Elite (1939)’. While Mills was influenced by Pareto and Mosca on the one hand, on the other hand Marx also had no less influence on him. Mills has used the concept of ‘powerful elite’ instead of using the concept of ‘ruling class’ which is a cumbersome word. Class is an economically defined term. from the concept of ruling class

There is an impression that an economic class is ruling politically which does not always go down well. Also, the ruling class does not include military officers, whereas if the situation in America is seen, economic determinism can be explained on the basis of political determinism and military determinism.

Mills defined the powerful elite as those in positions of power, that is, in commanding positions. In his words, the powerful elite were composed of those

by those who by reason of their positions rise above the general environment of ordinary men and women and occupy such positions which can take decisions relating to major consequences. Whether or not the powerful elite actually make decisions is not so much a question of

The fact that they are appointed to important positions. They also control large organizations in modern society.


and give directions for the departure of the troops. Even in the social structure, powerful elites have a very important and influential place.

Mills has also not accepted powerful elites like Mosca as separate rulers, rather they have been described as belonging to the mass group by middle level politicians. In his words the ‘powerful’ elite are not completely isolated rulers. Advisors, spokespersons and policy makers are the basis of their high views and decisions. Below the elite are the middle-level professional politicians. In which Congress influence groups, towns, cities or upper class people of the region can be included.



Mills mentions three types of powerful elites found in American society:


 Company President

 Political leader

 Commander


The main reason for keeping these three in one category is that all three represent the upper classes and constitute the ruling class. The basis of integration in these is common social background, personal and family relations and common operations in all three. Mills termed American society as mass society because in this the powerful elite keeps the mass silent through flattery, deception and entertainment. Although political decision making

Many small and autonomous groups are found for this, yet the final word on all important issues

Only the powerful elite have the right to take decisions. According to Mills, the powerful elite become corrupt because of not being accountable to the public for their decisions and because of considering wealth accumulation as the prime value. According to them, the theory of powerful elite is not a theory of history because national

Despite taking decisions on matters of great importance and far-reaching consequences, the powerful elite cannot be said to be makers of history.



Important role of intellectuals and ideologies



Intellectuals and ideologies play an important role in the politics of any society. Intellectuals evaluate political systems, give birth to new ideologies, express views on inequality in law and society, arbitrariness of the king and divine rights and prove the unfairness of traditional institutions on the test of logic. intellectually innovative

They give rise to movements, prepare the background for revolutions and political changes. The political role of intellectuals emerged as an ideal example in the ‘French Revolution (1789 AD)’. In the context of revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte says that if Rousseau had not happened, the French revolution would not have happened. Louis XVI could have saved himself if he had controlled writing. This statement clearly reflects the influence of Rousseau and his contemporary intellectuals Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, Condorcet and Quetelet etc. on the revolution.


The thinkers not only indicated to sabotage and destroy the ancient system, but also gave the message of building a new era in place of that ancient system. These thinkers were expressing the anger and aspirations of the people by throwing light on the weaknesses of social life and strongly criticizing them. At the time of revolution, efforts were made to build France according to the main ideologies of these thinkers and the main leaders of the revolution were indebted to the ideologies of these thinkers. The literature of these authors was characterized by scathing criticisms and censures and filled with wonderful suggestions to make the future more beautiful and happy. In fact, they were great revolutions whose influence spread first in France and then throughout Europe. This incessant and serious debate concerning the defects prevalent in this wide movement of ideas and their remedies, paved the way for the great events that were to come in France and the whole world.

Proved to be very important for Europe.

Montesquieu’s name is notable first among the thinkers. Montesquieu called the king’s divine theory wrong and opposed his self-love. He suggested establishing a constitutional monarchy. He told in his famous book ‘The Spirit of Law’ that all the three powers, executive, legislative and judicial, performed by the state, are exercised by the same person.


Being driven, the ruler becomes the ultimate autocrat. Therefore, for the freedom of the individual, it is necessary for these three powers to remain separate. Voltaire made the religious system and the church the target of his attack. He told the public that they should accept only those things which pass the test of their debate and discussion. The merits and demerits of an institution can be understood only through thought and superstitions can be dispelled.



Rousseau appeared before the public with a new program. He told through his book ‘Social Contract’ that the position of the king was not a divine thing. Rousseau declared the rights of man and described freedom and equality as the birthright of man, which can be achieved in a democratic system. Therefore, democracy should be established in place of monarchy. His famous slogan ‘Return to the state of nature’ particularly attracted the public of France.

In short, it can be said that intellectual changes prepare the basis for revolution and reforms. Thinkers have an impact on the flow of revolution and change. Leaders of revolution and change quote intellectuals to justify their actions. His political role is noteworthy.


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