The course of political economy

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The course of political economy

Wilfredo Pareto

( Vilfredo Pareto : 1848 – 1923 ]

– The name of Italy’s leading social thinker Wilfredo Pareto is one of the major scholars who have played an important role in organizing and giving a direction to sociological thought. Initially, Pareto’s thinking as an economist from a physicist and later as a sociologist was not only multifaceted, but adopting a synergistic approach between different sciences, an efficient coordination of rationality and pragmatism can be seen in the ideas he presented. . From his early thinking, Pareto was a firm supporter of Fascism or Totalitarianism. This is the reason why just as Karl Marx is considered the ‘prophet of the proletariat’, in the same way Pareto is considered the ‘Prophet of Fascism’ in Italy. One of the reasons for this is probably also that the influence he exerted on Mussolini as a professor of Mussolini strengthened the Fascist regime in Italy. The reality is that Pareto’s thinking and works have been so extensive that the reality of his thinking cannot be understood simply by calling him the ‘father of fascism’ or nurturer. Pareto’s life was full of ups and downs, without understanding which the originality and scientificity of his thoughts cannot be understood.


life and works

Pareto’s family was originally a well-to-do family of Geneva in Italy, in which his father, Marques Raphael Pareto (Marqius Raphael Pareto) was influenced by the thoughts of Mazzini (Mazzini) in the democratic ideology.

He was a follower. As a result of this, he went out of Italy and took refuge in France and there he married Marie Metenier, a girl from Paris. Wilf do Pareto was born here in 1948. Your full name is Vilfredo Frederico Damaso Pareto. About 7 years after his birth, when Italy’s political upheaval subsided, Pareto’s family returned to Italy again in July, 1848. In this way Pareto’s early education was completed in Italy only. After completing his secondary level education, he started studying in the famous Polytechnic of Turin and in this institution he continued to study mathematics, physics and engineering for 5 years. During this course, Pareto presented his thesis on ‘The Fundamental Principles of Equilibrium in Solid Bodies’, which later proved to be the cornerstone of his study of society. After completing his graduation in 1817, he started working as a director in the ‘Rome Rail-Road Company’, leaving this post shortly after, as an officer in an iron-industry company in Florence. Started working. This was the time when Pareto got ample opportunities to be in contact with elite families and high families of the bourgeoisie. From here he started becoming a staunch supporter and propagator of Jan Tantric and liberal ideas. In 1876, when the right-wing party supporting free trade withdrew from power and the party supporting left-wing policies came to power in its place, Pareto’s views were opposed. In 1882, Pareto was involved in active politics to oppose the leftist government, but he could not succeed in this endeavour. In the same year his father also died. Even after this, Pareto continued to work in the iron industry of Florence, but in 1889, leaving the post of director in this industry, he married Alessandrita, a young woman of Russian origin, and started living in Fiesole. Here he not only started studying the major texts of different languages, but also got engaged in the serious study of economics. During this period, Pareto got some unique research papers published on mathematical and theoretical economics, as a result of which in April, 1893, he was appointed to the post of Distinguished Professor of Political Economics at the University of Loshen, Switzerland. This not only saved Pareto from his opposition in Italy, but he also got an opportunity to study the principles of economics extensively.

The very next year, at the age of 46, Pareto was made a permanent professor. In 1896, when his book ‘Cours d’Economie Politique’ was published, he was counted among the leading scholars of the world. Thus Engineer Pareto turned into Economist Pareto. Although Pareto was a supporter of liberal policies as a professor of economics, but during this period, due to many incidents, he himself started to consider his thoughts as isolated. Another blow came to him when Pareto, on his return from an excursion, found that his wife had left Pareto with many valuables. Probably due to the effect of this incident, Pareto’s feeling about man started becoming a bit harsh. pareto from this trauma

He also remained mentally unwell for about 4 years. On returning to Loshen University again after illness, he accepted the diversity of human behavior and started lecturing on the subject of ‘Social Economics’. Meanwhile, he also tried to improve the curriculum of social studies and combine it in such a way that the attention of the person is also attracted towards those social and psychological factors which are the sources of economic behavior. At this time, he said about economics on one occasion that ‘by teaching the same subject matter again and again, I feel as if I have become a rote parrot. “From here, Pareto’s life started moving from economics to sociology. Explaining this situation, Pareto wrote, “After working in political economy, at a limit I felt that it could not go further. In this situation, many obstacles came in front of me, but the biggest obstacle among them was that all kinds of social phenomena are interdependent and society cannot be explained on the basis of any one factor. “As a result of the above change, Pareto started teaching in the field of ‘Political Sociology’, although to some extent he remained interested in the history of economic and social theories. At this time Pareto’s belief was that Most of the human behavior is not governed by conscience but by many emotions, passions, superstitions and such irrational thoughts. He realized that the grounds on which he was opposed to economic liberalism by his family and friends However, they were completely irrational. Also, the arguments on which the actions of the masses are based are influenced by many irrational beliefs, feelings, fears, and so on. In 1902, Pareto’s book ‘ Published in the name of ‘The Socialist Systenn’, Pareto’s concept is clearly seen in it. After this, Pareto expressed similar views in his book ‘Manual of Political Economy’ published in 1906. In 1909 Fifth note of musical scale Reto finally gave up teaching at the University of Lausanne. He started living in the country-style bungalow he had built in Celigny, near the town of Loshen. Here his interest continued to grow towards the study of sociology. The contribution he made to sociological thought at this time can be seen in his book ‘Treatise on General Sociology’ published in 1915. Later this book was published in English language in the name of ‘The Mind and Society’ in the year 1936. Finally, in 1923, Vilfre do Pareto died at the age of 75. Among the invaluable books that Pareto wrote to clarify his views, his major publications are as follows:


1. The Course of Political Economy, 1896,

2 . The Socialist System, 1902,

3. Manual of Economic Politics, 1906,

4. Treatise on General Sociology, 19151 In addition to the above mentioned books, Pareto also wrote a book during his lifetime on ‘The ruling class of Italy before 1990’ which was published after his death in 1950. It is clear from all these books that except for his first work, in all the later books, Pareto’s thinking was mainly oriented towards sociology. ‘Treatise on General Sociology’ is the most important book in which Pareto presented the concepts of sociology and clarified the interpretation of social phenomena in the context of many social, psychological, economic and political factors. He expressed his views from time to time by writing more than 100 articles in French and Italian languages. All these show the brilliant and original thinking of Pareto. In the context of sociological thinking, it is necessary to understand some of the major ideas presented by Pareto.


Sociology: A Rationale – Experimental Science

(Sociology: A Logico-Experimental Science)




Pareto’s foremost effort in his scientific study was to find out the means by which the irrational bases affecting human behavior could be discussed from a logical point of view. Pareto never agreed with Veblen and other scholars who wanted to explain human behavior on the basis of economic principles. On the contrary, Pareto believed that economic theories themselves should be explained on the basis of sociological concepts. Through this approach those characteristics related to human behavior can be properly understood, in the interpretation of which economic analysis and many other abstract principles have been proved. In this context, Pareto made it clear that the development of sociological theories must be based on a rationality that can give the right direction to economic and political thought. What can be the form of sociology? Explaining this, Pareto wrote that sociology is that social science whose main task is to obtain a rational-experimental basis for analyzing the irrational actions of individuals. From this point of view sociology should study those motivations which lead to irrational behavior of people as a means of social life.

Affects people. This is the reason why many scholars have associated Pareto’s sociology with the name of ‘Psychological Sociology’. The reality is that the concepts with the help of which Pareto tried to give a new form to sociological thinking, psychological elements are definitely included to some extent, but basically his sociology can be called ‘coordinative sociology’ only. This science is synergistic from the point of view that it is only through this that those bases affecting human behavior can be understood, which are not possible to be studied by other social sciences. Even after this, various social sciences are related to sociology because they can help sociology in knowing the effect of various factors through their respective studies and they can also benefit from sociological concepts. In this way, Pareto wanted to develop a science in the form of sociology, in which logical principles could be developed on the basis of commonalities of different types of social phenomena.


Thus Pareto named his sociology as ‘Logical Experimental Science’. This is because it can be developed as a science only with the help of a logical experimental method.

Takik – Experimental Method

(Logico-Experimental Method)


Being primarily a bachelor of science, Pareto believed that sociology could be developed as a science only if it had a scientific method of its own. Before Pareto, many scholars had insisted on adopting the method of physical sciences for sociological studies, but Pareto in his book ‘Treatise on General Sociology’ described the methods of Kamt, Spencer and many other scholars as ‘false scientism’. Opposing them giving the noun of Pseudo-Scientism). Pareto had a clear opinion that the methods with the help of which the subject matter of physical sciences are studied, are not suitable for sociological studies. The method required for scientific sociology should be related to observation, objective experiences and logical conclusions drawn on the basis of them. In fact, sociology is a coordinating science, so the study related to it is necessary to be based on observation and testing. Pareto named this method of study as ‘rational experimental method’. The Italian word ‘Experience’ used by Pareto does not mean experiments to be done in pure form, but observation and when necessary, that controlled observation, with the help of which the results obtained can be proved logically. Thus logical-experimental is the method which gives importance to experiments based on observation and has the ability to prove the results obtained from them through logic. According to Pareto, the meaning of logic is that on the basis of observation, the co-relation found between different events, the results obtained from them should be authentically presented. The term experimental includes the characteristics of both observation and experiment. Natural sciences are experimental because the concepts related to them can be developed only through experiments, unlike them, for sociological studies only controlled observation can be considered as a supplement to the experiment. From this point of view, the logical experimental method for sociology is such a method by which empirical similarities or regular relations between different facts can be found. On the above basis, Pareto clarified that sociology can be developed as a science only when various social phenomena are studied on the basis of experience, facts are examined through observation and experiment and found between different facts. Logical rules should be made on the basis of known similarities. In other words, it can be said that the facts or events which cannot be studied on the basis of observation and testing, should be kept separate from sociological study. It is possible that the results obtained through this method may be contrary to the common beliefs, but the aim of science is to present the exact rules, not to satisfy the feelings of the people. The characteristics on the basis of which Pareto clarified the nature of rational-experimental method can be briefly understood as follows:


(1) Emperical – According to Pareto, logical-experimental method is concerned only with presenting the exact facts. The real facts are only those which are obtained from observation or test and their truth can be proved logically. In this way, those facts which are beyond the purview of observation, testing and rationality cannot be studied through this method.


(2) Emotion-inferiority (Non-Ethical) – There is no place for personal feelings or emotions in rational-experimental method. The reason for this is that the facts obtained from observation or experiments can be explained only on the basis of logic and not on the basis of emotion. it means

That this method is not related to any imaginary idea or illusion of ‘what should be’, but stresses on presenting the facts ‘as-is-as-is’. Pareto accepted that this is possible because of the predominance of observation or observation in this method. Various arguments are presented on the basis of personal feelings of the researcher, that is why he suggests that it is very important for the researcher to avoid any such flaw.


(3) Simplicity – According to Pareto, simplicity is an essential quality of science. This means that the results obtained by this method


They should be explained in a simple manner. Logical-experimental method is concerned with presenting facts in a simple form in the same way as it is done in natural sciences. The main relation of simplicity is with orderliness, abstract presentation and clarity of ideas.


(4) Study of Unknown Facts – Pareto. It believes that “the scientific method of study is to explain the unknown facts through the known facts.” It means that the better way than to interpret the present facts on the basis of the past is to analyze the past on the basis of the present situation. To be explained In other words it can be said that it is a wrong way to understand the characteristics of the present society on the basis of the characteristics of the past. If we find out what are the characteristics of the present society, then on the basis of this we can understand our past in a more authentic way. In this way, Pareto told that by understanding the known facts of the present society through logical-experimental method, we can also understand those facts of the past which have remained unknown till now.


(5) Search of Dependable Factors According to Pareto, no single factor is responsible for social events. Every event in society is related to many other events. Thus it cannot be accepted that any social phenomenon is the result of any one factor. Logical-experimental method is related to the search for those factors which can be considered more dependable or reliable for discussion and analysis. Mentioning this feature, Pareto suggested that dependent-able factors can be discovered only by experiments done by controlled observation.


(6) Quantitative Analysis – From his early life, Pareto had been considering mathematics as the language of science. From this point of view, he considered the use of mathematics necessary under the logic-experimental method. This means that Pareto was not in favor of qualitative study of society, rather he gave more importance to the numerical or statistical analysis of social facts under this method. It is clear from the nature of sociology as a logical-experimental science presented by Pareto that you are not ready to accept any principle, fact or rule under sociology which is not proved by experimental method. Could In other words individualistic, emotion-oriented and highly moral facts are outside the subject-matter of sociology. Pareto accepted that some facts that remain outside the logical-experimental method may sometimes be useful for social life but they cannot be called truth or reality. In this way, the thing which is useful, should also be true, it is not necessary. On this basis, Pareto concluded that sociology can be made scientific only on the basis of logical-experimental method.




logical and non-logical actions

(Logical and Non-Logical Actions)


Pareto has accepted rational activities and different types of human behavior related to them as the main study object of sociology. This is the reason why he explained in detail the nature of these actions in comparison to irrational actions in his thinking. Pareto is of the view that all human activities can be divided into two main parts:


(a) Logical Actions and

(b) Non Logical Actions.


If their nature is understood in general terms, then it can be said that logical actions are objective whereas irrational actions have an emotional basis. It means that when an action is correct from the point of view of other persons then it is called logical action but when an action is based on some fallacious logic, feelings or emotions then it can be called illogical action. Pareto’s statement is that ‘an action is rational if the goal related to it can be achieved objectively and the means related to achieving that goal on the basis of best knowledge are also related to it. In this way, when a logical relation between the goal and the means of an action is clear in the mind of the doer and the people having knowledge of that subject, then we call such an action a logical action. Irrational action refers to all such human actions which are outside the purview of rationality in a proper sense. These activities represent a ‘residual category’. ,

It is clear that irrational actions are more involved in human behavior than logical actions. Explaining this fact with the help of an example, Pareto has written that the civil law of the society in its theoretical form is understood to represent rational action, but the behavior of the judge based on this is generally irrational. In the words of Pareto, “The decisions of the court also depend to a great extent on the sentiments and interests prevailing in the society, as well as being influenced to a great extent by personal considerations and chance. On many occasions, this decision is not at all related to any code or written law.” It means that many decisions, though influenced by personal perception, are justified on the basis of law. In this way, the internal forces which are active in the process of any decision, they only explain the delicate difference between logical and irrational actions. Based on the above, Pareto explained that the distinction between rational and illogical action is primarily based on the fact that there is a greater or lesser degree of rational correspondence between the end and the means of an action. This means that every individual action has two sides, the goal and the means. Some actions are such that on a logical basis, there is a clear harmony between the goal and the means. We call these verbs objective or logical verbs. On the other hand, there are many activities or human behavior in which there is no logical consistency between the goal and the means. These actions are emotional and that is why they can be called irrational actions. Perterty clarified that only actions based on logic cannot be called logical actions because every action must be based on some logic. The only difference is that the argument given for an action should be based on the doer’s own perspective or justification or that argument should be authentic or empirical. It means that some actions are such whose goals and means are clarified by the doer on the basis of many such arguments which are appropriate only from his point of view. This type of reasoning is called by Pareto as ‘Derivation’. Actions based on such arguments are irrational actions. On the contrary, when an action is based on valid reasoning not only from the point of view of the doer but also from the point of view of persons who have more extensive knowledge of the subject, then such an action is called a logical action. The fact is that authentic arguments are those . There are only those which are based on observation and experience. The basis of such arguments is not any kind of self-satisfaction, illusion or imagination. Their reality can be proved anytime by observation or experiment. In this way, the work of any science is mainly to render general rules through the study of logical activities. Redefining logical actions on this basis, Pareto wrote that only those actions are logical actions that link ends and means to each other on the basis of normative reasoning, not only from the point of view of the agent performing that action but also Even from the point of view of those people who have more extensive knowledge about it. “According to Pareto, even after accepting the importance of organic activities as a study object of science, the social effect of irrational activities cannot be ignored. In this regard, Pareto has written, “Rational activities based on logical experimental method The area of human behavior is so small that it can explain only a small part of the whole spectrum of human behavior. In most cases, science cannot help us determine our goals or predict the consequences of our actions. This is the reason why most of the human behavior is illogical. ” Psychologically it is clear that every person tries to make his behavior appear logically justified. It means that when a person is not able to include authentic rationality in his behavior or action, then he can rationalize his behavior. Trying to rationalize it in front of other people by wearing costumes. Even though the field of illogical actions is very wide from this point of view, they only clarify the self-deception of the doer but also create public It is also an indicator of Public Deceit. The truth is that the various taboos, legends and customs prevalent in the society mostly represent illogical activities. Even then, illogical activities are considered futile or disintegrating the society. (Pathological) Many irrational behaviors in the form of following traditions often increase the process of organization and integration in the group, which is seen in the festivals of many primitive groups. The concept of logical and illogical action introduced by Puroto was summarized by Aron (R. Aron ) can explain with the help of unmarked diagram:




Through this thorough analysis of rational and irrational actions, Pareto made it clear that irrational actions may be widespread in the society.

They are found from the world, but because they are not authentic and empirical, they cannot become the object of study of any science. Sociology itself is such a science which can develop only on the basis of logical experimental method. From this point of view only logical activities should be included in sociological studies.








































specific drivers and fallacies

(Residues and Derivatives)


Accepting the importance of irrational actions in the study of social relations on the basis of psycho-psychology, Pareto also clarified that these irrational actions are affected by the motivations and efforts of justification. In this context, you presented the concept of specific driver and fallacious logic. It is necessary to note at the outset that both the specific driver and the fallacious argument are related to the explanation of illogical actions. On the one hand, specific drivers explain the static side of illogical actions in the form of various motivations, and on the other hand, there is the dynamic side, which shows the justification of these actions in the form of theorization, even delusional. ,


It is true that human behavior is irrational to a large extent but man has been a rational animal since birth. Behind each of his actions, the person believes that his behavior is logical and based on some or the other principle. He never wants to believe that his actions are based on impulse or emotion. As a result, a person takes support of some logical explanation to make his action appear prudent. In order to study such behaviour, Pareto studied many beliefs, doctrines, methods of worship, rituals and magical practices found in traditional and modern societies. It is clear from this that there is so much similarity between all such practices, trends and principles that people have been considering certain objects, places or numbers as ‘auspicious’ or ‘inauspicious’ for themselves. People not only believe in good omens and bad omens, but also present many pseudo-rational reasons (Pseudo Reasons) to make these ways of behavior appear rational. It is clear from this that two basic elements are definitely found in the irrational behavior of man: (1) The first is the constant element which is related to the tendency of man by which he tries to make a special relation between different objects or conditions. , and (2) The second element is the Ingenious Theories on the basis of which the person proves the justification of his behaviour. In Pareto’s terminology, we call the first element ‘specific driver’ and the second one ‘fallacious reasoning’. These two elements related to irrational actions were discussed by Pareto in his book ‘Treatise on General Sociology’.






















special driver



Analyzing the irrational actions of human beings, it is clear that in the process of rationalizing their behavior by humans, some elements are of more stable nature. These elements create a tendency in a person to have a relationship with some special things in a special way. In other words, it can be said that most of the human activities are dependent on some drivers which are relatively more stable. Pareto has called these drivers as special drivers. Explaining their nature, Pareto said that the specific drivers are neither instincts nor are they sentiments, but still their nature is similar to many emotions. In fact, the specific drivers are some such motivations which are not very deep seated in the human mind.

Rather superficially, they provide the basis for adding a relation between the person’s statement and behavior. For this reason, specific drivers are seen as manifestations of suspicion. Although they cannot be called completely equal to the sangas. Explaining this, Pareto wrote that “specific drives are the declared forms of instincts and emotions.” On this basis, Martindale wrote that “specific drivers are irrational fixed elements which express emotions even when there are no emotions.” ” / Pareto discussed the difference between the practical actions of man and a rational interpretation to explain the nature of specific drives as expressions of emotions. Rational explanation of human actions goes on assuming that man first thinks, then ideas develop and on the basis of these ideas principles are formed in the end. These principles influence human actions. Pareto says that practically the situation is just the opposite, that is, a person does some behavior first, thinks later and then considers his behavior appropriate in the context of some principle. It is clear from this that “there is no direct relation of cause and effect between theory and actual action. Both theory and action are the results of some emotional behavior which has always been happening in the society in some stable ways. It is clear that the society The drivers or motivations on the basis of which a person performs various activities, those drivers are

They are more stable in nature. Even then it is necessary to note that specific drivers explain the condition between impulses and concomitant actions (Concomitant Behaviour) and this is itself a concept by which different types of human behavior can be explained. In Pareto’s words, “The specific driver is a basic concept of analysis for sociological studies, whereas the analysis of emotions belongs to ‘pure psychology’.” To clarify the nature of the special drivers, Pareto discussed about 50 special drivers and classified them as By dividing them into 6 categories, their generality was highlighted. The specific drivers of each category are divided into several sub-categories and each sub-category is divided into some subsections. For this reason, Raymond Aron has called the classification of specific drivers presented by Pareto as a two-level classification. All these categories of specific drivers can be understood as follows

(1) Residues of Combination

Peretti recognized that the characteristic drivers of association are found in a tendency of human beings to try to find some principle to establish relations between certain ideas and objects. This tendency to combine is observed in different regions which can be called sub-classes of such specific drivers. In the first sub-category one makes associations between ideas and objects whose properties are almost similar to each other. In the second sub-category, combinations are made between objects or events that have dissimilar characteristics. The third type of combination is related to unknown objects or unknown powers. In the last sub-category, Pareto explained the human tendency to associate a particular type of motivation with some other motivation. Pareto states that specific drivers of cohesion exist in our daily lives. For example, we combine some ideas and objects in such a way that ‘a person living in a beautiful and clean house will also have refined thoughts’ or ‘to see a beautiful thing in a dream means good fortune in the future’. Similarly, linking seeing a funeral procession with longevity or seeing gold in a dream with some economic calamity is an example of a combination of disparate characteristics. Apart from this, witchcraft and ‘totka’ etc. are also specific drivers related to religion and other types of emotions which explain the trend of ‘combination’. Seem of Himalpur


(2) According to Pareto, named Residues of the Persistence of Aggregate, these specific drivers are the ones which provide stability to the collectivity in the society. Pareto clarified the specific drivers that perpetuate collectivism or increase it by dividing it into 8 subcategories. In the first category, those special drivers are included, which provide stability to the person’s relationship with certain persons, places and social classes. Due to their influence, we get inspiration to have a permanent relationship with our parents, relatives or friends. We do not want to leave our house or village and want to maintain a permanent relationship with our employer or worker. In the second and third sections, Pareto discussed the specific drives that motivate us to preserve memories and objects of the dead and maintain our emotional relationship with them.

In the fourth category come those special drivers who increase collectivity by motivating us to keep our culture, beliefs and values permanent. Drivers of the fifth category are those that inspire the person to establish symmetry with the objects and events around him. In the sixth category, Pareto mentioned those special drivers, by whose influence a person transforms his feelings into reality and does sacrificial work for the collective life, and in the seventh and eighth category, those special drivers can be included, which respectively affect the personal relations. Encourages the establishment and creation of new beliefs. It is clear that all the specific drivers of this category play a special role in providing stability to the collective life. If they are compared with the specific drivers of the first category, then it can be said that while the specific drivers of the first category increase new ideas and theoretical ideas, the specific drivers of the second category are those who help in maintaining the status quo in the society. Let’s contribute. Thus the first class of special drivers is to some extent transformational while the second is inertial. For this reason, Pareto wrote that “efforts to bring change and revolution in society can be successful only when the influence of the second category of specific drivers is minimized.”


Residues of the Manifestation of Sentiments Through Exterior Acts In this category, Pareto has included those specific drivers which inspire a person to express his emotions through external actions. They are divided into two sub-classes. In the first sub-category, Pareto referred to the specific drivers that explain the emotional behavior of individuals in group life. For example, when you like a program

Audience clapping or walking out in the middle if they do not like the program, making noise or showing protest are typical drivers of this type. The second sub-category pertains to the drivers through which a person manifests his religious beliefs towards God through various activities. It is clear that the specific drivers of this category are those which motivate the person to perform some external actions for the expression of his emotions. The external activities which are carried out due to the influence of these drivers are emotional in nature.


(4) Residues of Sociability: These are the specific drivers which motivate the individual to become a social animal by conforming his thoughts and behavior to the group. This

Pareto explained the specific drivers of the category by dividing it into 6 subcategories. Based on the classification given by Pareto, it can be said that these specific drives in the form of different motivations motivate the individual to become a member of certain societies; demands from him to be like other people; Strengthens the feeling of kindness in a person. Encourages sacrifice and sacrifice towards others. Inspires to accept the stratification of the society and creates a feeling of sacrificing one’s happiness for others. The subsections and subsections that Pareto mentioned of the specific drivers of this category can be easily understood as follows : Subsections Subsections 12 1 . Membership of elite societies 2. Self-discipline of conformity Acceptance of social rules necessity rule over others 3. Compassion or Nird – towards oneself and others. Compassion towards suffering Compassionate disdain for others Self-indulgence in risking one’s life for one’s own goods Co-participation of others 5. of stratification. higher than yourself. Lower than yourself Social self-acceptance, feeling of hatred towards the work, 6. Escapism YE In the first sub-category of this category of specific drives, Pareto included those specific drives which motivate the individual to become a member of various associations in the form of specific societies. These associations or committees are different from the group in which a person is born. Sports committee and many other organizations are similar committees which make effective those emotions of individuals which are going to provide continuity to social life. Typical drivers of the second sub-category emphasize the individual’s need to be similar to other members in their thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors. For this, a person is not only inspired by the feeling of discipline on himself, but he also tries to keep others under discipline. Along with this, in order to maintain the homogeneity, some specific drivers motivate the individual to behave according to the ideal rules of their society, such as customs and practices. The third sub-category of specific drivers associated with the feeling of sociality is that which affects the feeling of kindness or cruelty. With the influence of these, a person develops a sense of kindness towards others or shows hatred towards cruel feelings. Some of these drivers also inspire him to organically despise cruel practices. The fourth sub-category is related to those special drivers which increase sociality by motivating the person to make self-respect and sacrifice. Under the influence of such drivers, a person either works for the benefit of others by risking his life or he tries to make himself more and more social by making others a partner in his activities. Specific drivers of the fifth sub-category generate belief in the individual towards social stratification. Under this, a person develops some special feelings towards people of higher status than him and people of lower status than him and tries to behave socially acceptable according to them. The last sub-category is of those special drivers which encourage the person to escape from the society in view of his responsibility towards the society. Due to their absence, a person does not even consider it bad to choose a painful life by renouncing the pleasures, it is clear that all these special drivers related to sociality try to make the society stable and balanced.




Residues of Personality Integrity

In this category of specific moves, Pareto did not mention the motivations that organize the different elements of the personality. With the influence of these special drivers, we oppose all such conditions which destroy the organization related to personality and accept those conditions which are likely to make the personality more organized. Pareto explained these specific drivers by dividing them into four main sub-categories. In the first sub-category, those specific drivers come which inspire individuals to oppose the elements that bring changes in the social balance. The person opposes this so that his personality remains in line with the traditional values. The second sub-category is of those drivers who inspire us to incorporate moral values in our personality. Due to their influence, we oppose any unethical pressure.

and try to avoid behaviors that are considered unethical. Some specific drivers are such that motivate the individual to integrate among the transformative activities in such a way that obstacles do not arise in the development of responsibility. In the fourth sub-category, Pareto referred to specific drives under the influence of which the individual tries to harmonize many real and imaginary motives in order to change his position in such a way that his personality appears more organized. Pareto states that all specific drivers belonging to this fifth category are related to personal interest. All these drivers are those who oppose any change in the balance of the society for the purpose of organizing the personality. Society


(6) Residues of Sex

Pareto says that every religion of the world has tried to make some or the other prohibitions and controls effective for sex satisfaction, but still the expansion of sexual behavior is the specialty of every human group. This is because of the specific drivers that generate and motivate sex-related emotions. Generally, the specific drivers related to work are considered personal, but Pareto clarified their generality by discussing the social impact of the behavior generated from them. While these drivers are the motivators of sexual behavior on the one hand, on the other hand they also provide inspiration to develop sexual morality by being combined with specific drivers of the fifth category. By clarifying the nature of different categories of specific drivers, Pareto pointed out that in our practical life, we do not do any behavior on the basis of its rationality or irrationality, but it is the specific drivers that motivate us to do certain actions or behaviors. provide. In fact, in every society, specific drivers play an important role in determining our behaviours, but the degree of influence of these specific drivers may vary between different groups and different individuals. This implies that some people’s behavior is more influenced by the specific drivers of the organization while others may be more influenced by the ‘specific drivers of personality organization’. It is clear from this that the effect of specific drivers on the behavior of a person is greatly affected by social conditions and time factor. Prareti clarified that although specific drivers have no rational-experimental basis, they play an important role in influencing human behaviour. For example, specific drivers related to sociability make the person compatible with the society by promoting human qualities in the person. While specific drivers of association provide mental satisfaction by motivating us to make a logical connection between different events. In fact, it is these specific drivers that influence different types of beliefs and provide the basis for presenting a simple explanation of events through them. Special drivers also have an important role in maintaining the balance of the social system. Social order is based to a large extent on the organization of personality. The society in which the personality of the individuals is more organized, there the social system is equally balanced and effective. Specific drivers inspire people to incorporate moral values into their personality and to despise behavior that deviates from social values. This work cannot be done on a logical basis so systematically as it can be done with the help of inspirations derived from specific drivers. Continuity and permanence of the society is based on some such motivations which connect different individuals, groups and experiences to each other. It means that when the specific drivers of stability of collectivity inspire us to be devoted to our motherland, nation and culture, then it makes the social system more stable. It is under the influence of specific drivers that we emulate the behavior of great men, revere the past and are ready to make the greatest of sacrifices for the values that are considered important in our society. As a result of these practices, a cultural heritage is created and useful practices take a permanent form in the form of tradition. Many human-behaviors are of such a kind that are influenced by specific drivers of expression of emotions by ‘external actions’ but only with the help of which the society can be made more advanced and progressive. For example, if emotions are not expressed by specific drivers through external actions, then neither the influence of superstitions and customs can be reduced, nor can a society be freed from an exploitative system. On this basis, Pareto says that many important social changes have been the result of inspirations received from specific drivers. It is clear from this that even after there is no logical basis behind the specific drivers, their social importance cannot be denied.

















typical driver where human behavior

While there are a number of stable motivations influencing the mind, fallacious reasoning is by its very nature changeable, diverse and often conflicting. The reality is that not only does every person consider all his behavior and actions to be appropriate for himself, but he also tries to justify those behaviors and actions in front of other people on the basis of some or the other argument. Behind each of his actions, a person tries to find some logic, proof or principle, with the help of which he can prove the usefulness or justification of his behavior. Such arguments or proofs are not related to logic-experimental science but they are wrapped in the cover of rationality in such a way that they can seem logical to others. This is the reason that such arguments keep on changing according to place, time and person. In short, Pareto has given the name of ‘fallacy-arguments’ to such arguments which demonstrate the justification of human behaviours. Pareto’s statement, “Man does most of his actions on the basis of perception, feeling and emotions. Even then he explains his actions in such a way that they may seem reasonable and logical. This leads to fallacy of behavior towards logic.” There is an attempt to explain. For example, whether our behavior is humanistic or full of cruelty, we try to prove its justification by some ideal or principle. Thus in Pareto’s term, “fallacy-reasoning”. They are what are called ideological, dogmatism and just justification in common language. Explaining the concept of fallacy presented by Pareto, Fairchild has written, “fallacy is the wide range of attitudes and actions by which human beings judge themselves and other persons regarding the rationality or justification of their behaviours.” Tries to convince. It is clear from this that fallacious arguments are not only used to justify the behavior in front of other people, but by this the person also tries to satisfy himself in such a way that whatever behavior he has done is justified. Reasonable and just. In this regard, Martindale (Martindale) briefly explains Pareto’s thoughts, writing, “Fall logics are methods of pseudo-interpretation of human actions. In this context, Pareto’s statement seems to be correct that most of the human behavior is not influenced by any logic or theory, but man behaves first and then justifies his behavior. Pareto’s belief is that only general Individuals do not take the support of provincial arguments in their lives, but even in the field of politics, philosophy and social science, great scholars have been trying to prove their works and ideas useful with the help of fallacious arguments.In this context, Comte Discussing specially, told that the concept Comte presented as ‘Religion of Humanity’, is mainly a trick based on false facts which was tried to be proved by fallacious arguments. In this way, it can be said that the arguments that a person takes support of to justify his behavior are fallacious arguments. The nature of fallacious reasoning can be understood on the basis of its two main features – the first is that fallacy logic are related to specific drivers and secondly that these are illogical facts. If we ask why is it that a person acts first and then finds logic for it? So it becomes clear that there must be some specific drivers that motivate a person to behave according to certain feelings and emotions. After this, the person also wants to prove the justification of his behavior.

Such justification HTS N can be proved only when the person compares his behavior with some other behavior or principles recognized by the society. This is the reason why man accepts only the characteristics related to specific drivers of different categories as the basis of logic. The specific drivers themselves are illogical, so the arguments based on them also become illogical. Thus there is a deep connection between typical drivers and fallacious reasoning. To clarify the nature of fallacious arguments, Prareti also mentioned its different types. Its purpose was to clarify that with the help of logical or psychological methods different people try to justify their behaviour. According to Pareto, the fallacious arguments that different people generally use in their social life can be understood by dividing them into the following wise categories.

1. Affirmative Derivations

Pareti has called the Saas category of ‘fallacy arguments’ which, despite being of the simplest type, are very effective. These arguments are used in the form of certain statements, sentences or declarations which cannot be confirmed by experience or test. Generally, this category of arguments is accepted by the society –

are accepted as a normal practice and become so powerful that opposing them is not an easy task. Such fallacious arguments can also be divided into two subcategories, emotional and mixed. (a) Positive fallacy arguments from emotional grounds are those in which an argument based on emotion is presented in such a way that it is not ordinarily opposed. When a mother orders her son for some behavior to obey everyone who is older than you because it is your duty to obey such command’ / then this logic gets the approval of emotion only. (b) Positive fallacious arguments of a mixed form are those in which facts are mixed to some extent with feelings. For example, during a war, soldiers are first taught devotion to their nation on an emotional basis and then ordered to fight. It is clear that the integration of facts and feelings that is seen in the orders given to the soldiers in the time of war, explains such fallacious arguments. Pareto has also considered the propaganda done by the ruler in a fascist system related to similar fallacious arguments. In such propaganda, repeated repetition of a partial fact on emotional basis makes it accepted as true by the general public. This was the reason why Hitler considered propaganda as important as arms.







(2) Authoritative Derivations


The fallacious arguments of this category are those which are related to the authority of a particular person, a particular tradition or divine authority. The authority of the person (Authority Man) The social relations of every person in the society are affected by the authority of some or the other person. This authority may be statutory or customary, but we easily accept the argument or statement given by the one whom we consider more prestigious or powerful than us. Power of husband over wife, power of father over children, power of teacher over student or power of leader over workers are various examples of this. This means that when an argument is made in front of a subordinate person in the name of a person in power, then no attempt is made to know his credibility.





(3) Authority of Tradition


A person also presents arguments on the basis of traditions to justify his actions or behaviours. When we say that “Marriage can be successful only by marrying in one’s own caste”, then this is a fallacious argument given in the context of the authority of tradition. The meaning is that we often refer to the authority of traditions or customs. In favor of communal strife, caste violence and regionalism, they give fallacious arguments in such a way that they are considered justified.

(c) Divine Authority – Pareto clarified that most people believe in God or a supernatural authority. As a result, when a person is not able to give any concrete evidence in favor of his particular behavior, then he starts giving one or the other fallacious argument which is related to divine power. ‘Accord with Sentiments’ place of emotions is very important in human life. In this situation, people often use such fallacies for their actions. takes recourse to arguments that appeal to human emotion are suited to That’s why they are accepted as true by common people. Such fallacious arguments are used from the level of the individual to the level of the nation. For example, if a person commits a crime for his son and argues that ‘it is the father’s moral duty to commit a crime to protect his son’ or by attacking a person who commits indecency in public, argues that ‘to protect morality’ It is the civil responsibility of every person to do so, then such arguments explain the same fallacious arguments which are in favor of the sentiments of the general public. In democratic countries, if the government does not want to make any specific information available to the general public, then this fallacious argument is resorted to. That doing so is not in the interest of the nation. Everyone knows that extremism is a major problem in many countries today. Even after this, when an extremist is involved in violent activities, he tries to give many such arguments on moral grounds so that he can adapt himself to his feelings. In this way, Pareto has mainly included those fallacious arguments in this category by which a person tries to satisfy himself on an emotional basis after some behavior.

(4) Verbal Proofs

Pareto has considered it especially important to prove the justification of behavior by giving oral evidence in the discussion of provincial arguments. Your statement is In such illusory arguments, there is importance of words and language in words. for these fallacious arguments

The language used is not only confusing and double meaning, but it is presented with the help of many fictitious proofs in such a way that it is easily believed. democratic system

In the context of the speeches given by the leaders in the system, Pareto wrote that ‘there is nothing else in these speeches except logical proclamations’. “Pareto also believes that many of the oral proofs which are included in the mythological stories of different religions, those proofs are not logical or practical, they are only fallacious. Through the whole discussion of fallacious arguments, Pareto has shown this. Clarified that it is always necessary to avoid the influence of fallacious arguments in the interpretation of social events, but it does not mean that all fallacious arguments are harmful to the society or that they do not contribute to maintaining social order. The reality is that many of our fallacious beliefs, being related to specific drivers of group stability or personality organization, increase collectivity and make personality more organized, just as many superstitions, while unscientific, help organize individual lives. In the same way that many fallacies prove to be useful in connecting different sub-systems of society with each other. Nevertheless, it is necessary for sociological studies to make use of fallacies. Be free from the influence of


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