Village leader

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Village leader

Leadership occupies an important place in the rural power structure. In the present complex society, our entire social system is directly or indirectly based on leadership. The reason for this is that there are very few people in the society who have the ability to take decisions on their own or to anticipate situations. This means that people who have one There is a greater capacity to understand and solve the problems of a particular group or community, be they naturally a small or a large one. Begins to lead the field. From this point of view, leadership is a social fact; It is important to note that leadership is also a comparative concept; Tamsanjapam is vdabmchaj. It means that the person who has the qualities of leadership also has the qualities of following.

But when the tendency of a person to lead becomes more developed than to follow and it is accepted by a large number of persons, then that person attains the position of leader in the group. In democratic societies, the interest of civil society sociologists, political scientists and psychologists towards the study of leadership is continuously increasing, but the number of scholars studying in the context of rural leadership is relatively less. With the present discussion, our aim is to clarify the concept of rural leadership, as well as to see that along with clarifying the concept of traditional rural leadership, it is also to see what are the new trends related to leadership today in comparison to traditional rural leadership. Emerging trends and how they have affected rural life


concept of leadership

Leaders and leadership are important for every society, institution, organization and country. At each level of social organization, the leader is held responsible for its operation and organization. The leader is also a member of the group. He influences the group to a greater extent through his characteristics and behaviours. How does the leader do this work d Who is the leader d What factors depend on the behavior of the leader d Extensive studies have been done in the context of all these questions.

The leader is the person who exerts maximum influence on the group as compared to other persons and the process by which he achieves the goal of influencing the group is called leadership behaviour; Bern and Bern A 1987. The relationship that the leader has with the other members of the group is known as the leader. are called consequential relations. The leader very effectively directs the thoughts, behavior and actions of his followers. If we want to identify the leader of a group, then we have to see which member of the group has the most influence on the group. In this way, each member of the group is a bit of a leader. Leadership is not a qualitative but a quantitative variable. At the same time, it is also clear that leadership behavior is not one-sided because it is interactive. Both the leader and the follower influence each other. From this point of view, a formal leader will not be a real leader if he does not have influence over the followers; Crutch A Crutchfield and Ballecki A 1962.


Discussing in the context of the group, it has been said that with the expansion of the group, the differentiation of positions and roles; The last one is Janjavida. This position refers to the ability to influence by different individuals. It has also been found that leadership is required when there are obstacles in achieving group goals or when there is a threat from outside to the existence of the group. If there is discord, instability within the group or if the formal leader does not perform his job properly, leadership behavior emerges. The amount of such needs are there in the members of the group, for whose fulfillment the leadership depends on the situation and the characteristics of the members of the group. It would not be appropriate to consider the leader as a separate individual category because all the members of the group exercise social power over the members in leadership behavior and influence them to move in a certain direction. Several theories have been presented to understand leadership. . There are three main types of approach in these theories.

personality theory
situational theory and
Finally done principle.

personality theory

When we look at the great leaders, it appears that they were not ordinary people. In today’s era, the ability of Mahatma Gandhi dressed as a half-naked fakir certainly seems unbelievable. The early theories of leadership were based on the belief that leaders have certain qualities that others do not. This theory believes that leadership is a general characteristic of personality, that is, a person who is a leader becomes a leader in every situation. Leadership behavior in different situations. The fact of finding Sa has been partially confirmed. to accept leadership as a general characteristic

There is not enough evidence for. This theory, which links leadership with great personality, also believes that the leader is unique. But history shows that good leaders have also been good tyrants. As a result, the personality theory of leadership does not seem very suitable. Staghill; 1974 and Man; Analyzing about 250 studies related to the characteristics of leaders, 1969 has done a comparative study on physical qualities, personality and acquired characteristics. It is clear from their analysis that the leader is slightly older in age, taller, healthier and more active. This generalization is not found in other fields except in the field of sports. For example. Gandhi, Napoleon and Hitler were neither taller nor stronger than their followers. Therefore, no clear distinction is obtained on the basis of these characteristics. person . Two traits have been found to be important in trait studies: intelligence and eloquence. In some studies, assertiveness, interpersonal sensitivity and self-confidence have been found to be important for a leader. Another characteristic that has been associated with leadership is charisma; Prabhamandal d. This is considered a supernatural feature. This aura has been associated with many leaders, but it cannot be considered the reason for leadership. Laswell; 1948 and Wolfenstein; 1947: Psychohistories of many great leaders; Analyzing Chelbyvipajavatal, it has been shown that many great leaders were suffering from various kinds of conflicts of power and motivation. Therefore, his greatness was an attempt to compensate.


situational theory


Dissatisfied with the personality theory, some psychologists have proposed the situational theory. According to this, the characteristics of the situation determine what kind of leadership is needed. In the beginning, the exponents of this principle even said that who will lead in a given situation. It is a matter of chance; Kapoor and Megaff A. 1968. Many factors related to the situation affect the leadership. It has been found in many studies that the size and nature of the group determine the type of leadership that will develop. For example, larger group sizes have higher expectations. Similarly, the person in the group who has more communication with other members of the group; There is an opportunity to talk, his chances of leadership increase compared to other members; Utco A 1968. This may also happen because the over-communicative person feels that the other members of the group depend on him. The selection of leadership also depends on what are the needs of the group members and who can help them to meet them constructively. This also has the effect that when there is a change in the needs or tasks of the group, there is also a change in the leadership; Bernland 1962. Thus the characteristics of the situation affect the leadership. The possibility cannot be ruled out that a member desirous of becoming a leader creates such conditions in the group that the members of the group give him the opportunity to lead; Raby and Bebers A 1976). Situational factors may include the characteristics of the group members. For example . Followers with an autocratic personality would like to elect an autocratic leader only. Therefore, according to this theory, being a leader depends on the characteristics of the leader and the limitations of the situation.


interaction theory


In both the theories discussed above, an important aspect of leadership behavior i.e. the approach of neglect towards the follower was adopted. As indicated while explaining leadership behavior, there is a difference between the leader and the follower in terms of their ability to influence. Therefore, it is necessary that the role of followers is also given importance in understanding leadership behavior. Hollander; In 1978, considering this question, the leader follower interaction effect; Tmbapachtavbans Padasinmadbam dd has been mentioned. We also find in our experience that a successful leader is the one who can represent the thoughts and feelings of his followers powerfully. Leaders who do not pay attention to the needs and desires of their followers, their followers go away from them. Thus, leadership depends on the interaction of the person and the situation. There is no universal form of leadership. A person can be a leader in a situation. not in the other. Leader’s competence; It depends on the combination of the characteristics of the person and the situation. Labin A. Lippitt and White; 1939) studied the behavior of children by placing them under conditions of autocratic, democratic and free leadership. The autocratic leader did not keep his relation with the group. The democratic leader gave the group the opportunity to decide the policy, gave freedom to the members to work and participated in the work of the group. The independent leader gave complete freedom to the group and did not participate in the activities of the group.


The results revealed that children working under an autocratic leader showed a higher degree of resentment than those under a democratic leader. Group cohesion was greater in the democratic group. With the removal of the autocratic leader, the creativity of the work decreased. democratic group

This did not happen in me. as far as productivity



Under autocratic leadership, its quantity was more than other groups. Later studies made it clear that leadership effectiveness was determined not by the leader’s style but by the situation. The demands of the group and the goals of the group determined which leader would be more effective.


Fiedler; 1964. 1971: Degree of Leadership; Developed the theory of Bwadjapadhamdabal in which both these elements have been included. In fact, the contribution of leadership in the context of the group is of many types. Some leaders make impressive contributions to group morale and performance, while others do not. Some leader is more capable and some less. Modern psychologists have paid special attention to these questions. Fiedler; 1978 and Fiedler and Garcia; 1987) has assumed in his theory that the contribution of the leader to the successful performance of the group depends on the characteristics of both the leader and the situation. To fully understand leadership effectiveness, both types of factors have to be considered. Fiedler called the least preferred peer; The honor of the person with is considered most important. It refers to how the leader evaluates the person who is not suitable or least suitable to work with. The leader who does not like such a person mainly gives importance to the successful execution of the work. On the other hand, a person who positively likes such a colleague wants to maintain good relations with his colleagues. Which of these two types of leaders will be more successful? This situation is in favor of the leader when the leader gets more support and commitment from the group members. The goals and roles of the work should be well defined and the leader should be able to follow the orders with the influence of his position. According to Fiedler, those leaders who are task-oriented; Genres are heterodox. person . Compared to oriented leaders, they are more capable in situations in which they have more or less control over the situation. person on the other hand. Oriented leaders are more successful in situations where there is a moderate degree of control over the situation and the group seeks more direction for task performance. In such a situation, a task-oriented leader is a person. Provides more structure than an oriented leader. Similarly, task-oriented leaders are more effective in situations in which there is a high degree of control over the situation. In such a situation, action-oriented leaders think that the conditions are right and they reduce their interference. This work is appreciated by his followers. In this situation the person Oriented leaders tend to think that “they have good relationships with group members” and focus on the task at hand. This effort of his is considered as an obstacle in his work.


Situations in which the control is moderate remain fixed. It becomes necessary to pay attention to good interpersonal relations. Since people-oriented leaders are interested in people. This type of leader becomes more effective in such a situation. On the other hand, task-oriented leaders can become autocratic due to their interest in work and the relations of colleagues with them can deteriorate.


In this way Fiedler’s theory is compatible with the modern interactional theory. This theory has been tested in many studies and success has also been achieved. This principle has been found to be very successful in industry, intercultural environments, and military academies; Starberg and Garcia A. 1981. This theory gives many suggestions for the teacher of leadership. Leaders should be trained to change the circumstances in which they can work. This approach is effective from many points of view because the amount of control can be increased by structuring the circumstances under it. There is no need to change the personality of the leaders and their motivations. Fiedler and his colleagues have designed a training program for this, in which the leader can measure the level of work with his least favorite colleague and see to what extent the situation is in his favor. Later, training is given in techniques to modify the situations. This type of training has also been successful. Still there are some limitations of this theory. Task oriented and individual. What are the characteristics of oriented leaders, how much the situation is in favor of the leader, it is difficult to determine. But there are other characteristics of the situation which were not taken into account. Nevertheless, this theory has become quite popular.


J B P Sinha; 1980 nurtured action-oriented leadership; Chhatjantandaj has found the leadership style of Janesh Unzemat appropriate in the Indian conditions. This style does not oppose participation. A transitional position of leadership in line with cultural expectations; Jtandepajpavdans expresses Sankamteipach. In Indian environment where dependency is found in abundance, people tend to develop personal relationship with the leader. From this point of view, if the leader wants to get the acceptance of the individuals or members of the group under him, he can do so only by adopting the form of a nurturer towards them. In this model, with the help of nurturing techniques, the leader helps his assistants.

Can work with This style of leadership was found prevalent in Indian organizations; J. B. P. Sinha A. 1984. Perhaps this style of leadership is like a statue in our mind; Verma A 1985. In fact, there exists a substantial gap between the actual behavior and the expressed values. Most of the leaders working in the organizations refer to the nurturing task-oriented leadership at the verbal level but do not use it in practice. The organizations of the administrators who actually adopted it were actually found to be more efficient. Subsequent studies have shown that this type of leadership is applicable to middle level managers. Mentoring among top level managers. innovative; The style itself is impressive; Khandwala 1988


Pandey; 1975) made an experimental study of the effects of leadership style, personality characteristics and the method of leader selection on the behavior of the leader and group members. It is clear from this study that leadership style that gives importance to relationships than task-oriented leadership gives rise to more ideas among the members of A group. Chosen leader and Bari. The behavior of those who in turn acted as leaders was more democratic. of leaders

primary task

Execution of work It is the responsibility of each leader to complete the work by dividing the work among the different members of the group.

The planners and leaders have to plan the works. In particular, with the help of which methods and sources the group will be able to achieve the goal; what will be its short term and long term tasks; the leader also has to decide this.

Policy Formulation: The leader sets the policy for the programs of the group. This policy has to be decided by the colleagues or above officers or the leader himself.

Expertise: The leader is considered to be knowledgeable about information and groups. This knowledge makes him more powerful.


Representation of groups: The leader decides on the relationship of his group with other groups or represents his group. It also acts as a medium to transmit external information to the group.


The controller of internal relations also works to control the mutual relations of the group members.

System of rewards and punishments: The leader gives suitable rewards and punishments to the group members on the basis of their performance. It also changes the positions of the members.


The mediation leader acts as a decider for the group members keeping in mind their goals. The middle also defends.


secondary function


Example to the group The leader through his actions and thoughts sets a real example of role model for the members of the group.

The symbol of the group, the leader, provides a cognitive center for maintaining the mutual relations of the group or provides continuity to the group.

Distribution of work: The leader gives its members the opportunity to be free from personal responsibility. Not the members of the group but the leader is held responsible for every act good or bad.

Determinant of ideology The leader sets a framework of values, norms and beliefs of the group and provides a direction to the attitude.

The role of a parent: A leader is a person who provides emotional churning for the group. One finds himself in a good state of mind to identify with him. The leader earns the trust of the group by this type of work and becomes more powerful.

Being a scapegoat: Where in good situations, group members agree with the leader, while when dissatisfied and frustrated, all group members are frustrated.





The leader also has to become the vessel of anger. The more the leader fulfills the responsibility of the group, the more he is blamed for failure. The leadership functions mentioned above are important to leaders in varying degrees. Which of these will be important depends on the permanent size, goals and structure of the group.


dimensions of leadership behavior

Many studies have attempted to find out how to explain the variation found in leadership behavior. In this context, Halpin and Binner; 1957 has proposed two dimensions. , 1) take care; Bvdepakmatanjapvad and; 2) Initiative and direction; प्डजपंजपजमंदक कपतंबिजप्वद्ध। Of these, caring is related to such behaviors that are related to the motivation of group members, internal balance and satisfaction of the members, and initiative. Direction is related to the search for such means which are helpful in achieving the goals of the group and contribute to the coordination of the activities of the members. Wells; 1953 d. specialist ; Jeanne Chombinspage and social emotional experts; Webpins. There is a discussion of two types of leadership in Mūvajapāvādansa Magachamatap. The task specialist is chosen so that he gives the right direction to the group. Being focused on work, he adopts an aggressive role or other people start disliking him. Then another person becomes the leader who is social. Associated with emotional problems.


group structure and leadership

When groups of many people interact with each other for some goal, which person, to what extent

in leadership behavior d it rewards and costs; Depends on the result of Muntak Dak Bavej. The group gives the position of leader to the suitable person according to its needs. This type of group interaction is seen in short-lived groups found in laboratory conditions. Long-term continuity of leadership is found in relatively stable groups. Due to the system of rewarding each other, there is stability in the communication power and position and the established leadership patterns are confirmed. This stability of the structure is established in a number of ways. When a person’s contribution is more in the work of the group, he gets a higher position and this is repeated. The later leader uses his credibility to perform work in other circumstances. The stability of leadership also depends on the structure of group norms. Slow . Gradually the members of the group come to believe that the job of the leader is to lead the group and the job of the followers is to follow. Virtually the dominance of the leader imposed by the group; becomes the basis of the living water; Blau A 1964. A difficulty arises in this context. To become a leader, one needs strength and acceptance of the use of strength by the group, but gaining strength and gaining social approval both do not coincide with each other. The demand that the leader makes from his followers on the basis of power reduces the power of the followers. Gaining power requires that leaders provide others with resources from which they benefit and remain dependent. It is also important that the leader be independent of the resources that other individuals provide in return. In this way, the leader can neither accept nor reject the benefits offered by the other members of the group, because the rejection would be perceived as dislike. In this way, it is very difficult for the leader to get approval for himself. This problem is solved only with time. In the initial period, the leader acquires his potential in such a way as to obtain the necessary approval to establish leadership. Later on he starts using his potential in such a way that he gets approval as well as legitimacy. Thus the leader may initially compete for power with the members of his group but once established he may use his resources to keep the group members happy and their approval as a legitimate leader and can get approval. When a person has formal authority eg. The initial competence of such a leader depends on the contract regarding the conditions of the job. Slow . Gradually, with the use of his power, he also acquires legitimate dominance. In this way the exchange between the leader and the group begins at a new level. In some circumstances, the power of a leader does not depend on interaction but on the process of socialization. This is called institutional dominance; It has been called Pradejpijvidanspramik Najitpijal.




Different scholars have explained the concept of leadership in many ways. literally; The meaning of a leader is understood from any such person who is a guide, leader, skilled in any subject, giving wisdom or is efficient in behavior. From a democratic point of view, the meaning of leadership is understood from such a situation in which some people are voluntarily following the orders of another person. If on the basis of power in a person, to get desired behavior from other persons. If there is capability, it is also included under the concept of leadership. In fact all these meanings are very narrow. Practically, leadership is that way of behavior in which a person influences others more by his behavior rather than being influenced by the behavior of others. This work may be done through pressure or by inculcating personality related qualities.


Pigger; While defining leadership, Chhmat has said that “leadership is a concept that destroys the relationship between personality and the environment.” It discusses that situation. In which a person has taken a place within a particular environment in such a way that his will, feeling and intuition discipline and control other persons to achieve a common goal. On the basis of this definition, it can be said in the form of an equation that the specific environment, the position of the person, and the direction, leadership. It means that a person in a particular environment, be it primary, religious, political, educational or entertainment, and any other field, when he occupies a particular position, he can influence the behavior of other people through his qualities or ability. seems to do This position is called the position of leadership. Lapierre and Farksworth; According to Sanchamat-Thantadevatji, “Leadership is that behavior which affects the behavior of other people more than the behavior of other people affects the leader”. Through this definition, Lapierre has clarified leadership on the basis of the relationship found between the leader and his followers. A leader not only influences the behavior of the followers but is also affected by their behaviour. But when the leader’s influence is compared

becomes more than the standard, only then his behavior is accepted as leadership. Mama Seaman and Morris; In the words of Maimmundak Dwatipet, ‘Leadership’ refers to those actions by a person which influence other persons in a particular direction. It is clear from this that influencing the behavior of other people is not leadership, but leadership means turning their behavior in a certain or desired direction. It is almost on this basis that Teed has written, “Leadership is such an action by which people can be influenced to cooperate in achieving the desired goals.” For example, a village is a social unit in which one or more such persons are needed who can determine their goals in front of other people and inspire all the people to work together to achieve them. According to Ted, we can call this pattern of influence as leadership. SH


To clarify the nature of leadership, it is necessary to clarify the difference between leadership and dominance. In the words of Kimball Young, ‘dominance’ can be seen as an instrument of power that is used by one person to control and change the attitudes and actions of another person. From this point of view, the element of power or authority is necessarily associated with dominance. The changes that are brought about in the behavior of individuals by dominance are generally through pressure. On the contrary, the change that leadership creates in the behavior of individuals is voluntary. For example, if an officer makes desired changes in the behavior of other employees in his office, it would be called dominance, not leadership. Moreover, the success of leadership requires mutual sacrifice between the leader and his followers, whereas dominance can be maintained without intimacy and sacrifice. Anderson; Dakamtevad states that the attitudes related to leadership are generally progressive while dominance has more conservative elements. Even after this, it has to be accepted that leadership and dominance cannot be completely separated from each other. The reason for this is that even in leadership some people are followers of the leader and in dominance also some people have to work under someone’s control. It is on this basis that Kimbal Young has written that what we commonly call leadership should be correctly interpreted as dominance.


The four main characteristics of leadership are clear from the above definitions. they are . Leader, Follower, Situation and Action; Smankamat e thwassvoomte e appjananjpvad dak jnesh dh. Leader – Every group has a leader who interacts with the people of the group at different times and establishes relationship with them. He does a variety of tasks for the group. It does not mean that the type of work done by the leader cannot be done by other people of the group. The functions of leadership can be divided among the members of the group but the onus of carrying them out is typically on the leader. There are many methods of identifying the leader of any group, among which sociometry; Vaibpavumjtaldh is also one. The leader is more skilled, capable, experienced and intelligent, so he is more effective than other people in the group. trail follower Apart from the leader in the group, there are people who follow the leader, we call them followers. There can be no leader without followers; M.Bandavij Jeepada and Sminkamit Poopjeevanj Thwasswoomte. So, unless there are some people who believe or follow the wisdom of one person, leadership will not arise. In order to achieve the common objective, it is necessary that there should be active interaction between the leader and the followers. It is also necessary for the achievement of the objective and the movement that the followers accept the leadership of the leader and the leader works according to the expectations of the followers. Followers are more effective than the behavior of their leader. This does not mean that the followers do not have any effect on the behavior of the leader, but the effect can be seen in relative terms. Leadership is bilateral. , Smunkmteipach pe juv. The basic property is the same but there is a difference in the degree of mutual influence. What circumstances Leaders and followers interact only in certain situations. In situation we include values and attitudes. The leader and his followers have to plan keeping in mind the social values and attitudes to achieve their goals. We can enumerate certain aspects in the situation viz. , 1) The mutual relations of the people of the group; 2) Being a unit of the group having characteristics A; (3) the characteristics of the culture of the members of the group; (4) the physical conditions in which the group is to operate; 5) Values, attitudes and beliefs of the members. Situation has an important influence in determining the leadership of the group. Work . Work refers to those activities which are collectively given by the group to achieve the objectives. Various types of requests are made to the leader to complete the task.

Competencies are expected. The nature of work motivates the leader to act. In this way, we see that there are four important aspects of leadership, the leader, the follower, the situation and the task. Leadership cannot be said to be the privilege of one or a few. As Luther says, “Anyone who is more social than ordinary people.” One who is efficient in providing psychological motivation and makes collective response effective can be called a leader. To understand leadership more clearly, we will consider some of its important aspects.



The leader has a central position in the group. Sometimes the leader takes many actions for the group without the suggestion of his followers. Starts the activity. ,


The effect of leadership is that action is taken collectively by the whole group.


Leadership is cumulative in nature. When a person plays his role in a situation, he gets pressure in many ways.


Leadership can be formal or informal. In the power structure of the society, the influence of formal leadership is less than that of informal.


The field of leadership is wide. The scope of leadership ranges from directing the activities of a small group to the activities of the entire nation.

There is a distinction between leadership in terms of formal and informal influences, but both sides are involved in the leadership situation. A person who is a leader in a formal situation can also be in an informal one and vice versa when a formal leader is ineffective in the presence of an informal and effective leader.



It is possible to measure leadership only in terms of quantity. A person can lead differently in different areas at different times and under different circumstances. may represent a different quantity. Leadership can be divided and distributed to varying degrees among the people of a group or society. It is not necessary that one person should lead in all situations and times. Separate . Leaders can change in different times and circumstances.


People who lead have effective ability and ability to get the job done. Different to fulfill different tasks and according to different time and situation. Leaders with different qualities are required. That is why one person cannot be a successful leader in all situations.

The characteristics of leadership are personal. They are related to the situation in which the work is being done. This is the reason why a person who is a leader in one situation is not the same in another.


Leadership is not only related to prestige, position and ability, but it is also related to effectively completing the work. If no activity of the leader is visible then we will say that the leadership is very weak.


Leadership involves social interactions that occur among group members with each other, between leaders and followers, and between individuals and groups. Piger is of the opinion that leadership is a process of mutual stimulation.



qualities of a leader;

For a person to become a successful leader, he should have many physical and mental characteristics. There are differences of opinion among psychologists on what these characteristics are. TED lists 10 general qualities a leader must have. Mr. Bernard considers 31 qualities to be desirable. Wind has listed 79 qualities of a leader as suggested by 20 psychologists.


Mr. M. N. Basu has considered the following 10 qualities essential in a leader

, 1) The personality of the leader should be strong.

, 2) The leader should be sympathetic towards others.

, 3) The leader should be a good speaker because he brings the crowd under his influence with his speech.

, 4. The expression of the leader should be clear. People are easily attracted by his verbal expression

, 5 The leader should have a good knowledge of group psychology.

, Leader should be honest. ,

7 The leader should have morality and kindness.

, 8 The leader should have the ability to adapt himself to the circumstances.

, 9 The leader should be aware of all kinds of information.

, 10. A leader should be the one with many interests in mind.


In addition to the above mentioned characteristics, some more qualities are expected in the leader which are as follows


physical qualities. Leader physically fit. Must be strong. Stagdill and Govin believe that length is a special quality of leadership. Beligreth A. Govin and Petrij etc. found in their study that the leaders were of heavy body. A person with physically healthy, handsome and attractive personality is more preferred as a leader.


wise . A leader is expected to be more intelligent than the common people because sometimes in critical situations he has to take decisions, he guides and controls the people.


Pratm. Strong soul in the leader of faith. There must be faith. Many times he struggles with conflict situations. Your courage and self. It is on the basis of faith that he attracts people with his speech. Scholars like Cox A Drake and Gibb etc. found in their studies that the leader is Apoorva Pratma. He was full of faith.


Sociality . The leader should be tactful and maintain relations with everyone. Goodenough a Contell and Stice a Moore and no

All the scholars like New Combe consider sociality in a person necessary for successful leadership.


Resolve power. A leader should have determination power. Many scholars found in their studies that the determination power of the leader was much higher than that of the common people. It is only on the basis of willpower that a person can take decisions, fulfill responsibilities and achieve spiritual goals. It is worth maintaining patience.


diligent . To become a leader, it is necessary that he is hardworking. Due to hard work and dedication, they succeed in achieving the objectives of the group. Seeing the leader working hard, others also follow him. A person who works hard has more prestige in the village.


Imagination power A leader must have imagination. On the same basis, he makes plans, executes them and finds solutions to the difficulties that may arise in the future.


insight. It is necessary to have insight in a leader. On the basis of this quality, he finds out the mental state of his followers and changes his conduct accordingly. He evaluates future situations in advance and takes steps accordingly.


resilience . A good leader is considered to be the one who adapts himself according to time and circumstances. It is necessary for successful leadership to bring changes in behavior according to new circumstances, otherwise it is considered conservative and anti-change.


excitability. A leader should be efficient, cheerful, ready to work, lucid, original, cheerful, enthusiastic and energetic.


The presence of all the above mentioned general qualities is essential for a successful leader. It does not mean that a leader should not have any other qualities other than these or that one who has all these qualities will necessarily become a leader. If time and circumstances match a person with suitable characteristics, then his chances of becoming a leader are complete. There is every possibility.




types of leadership



Many types of leaders have been seen on the basis of the origin of leadership, the behavior of the leader, and the relationship found between the leader and the followers. We will mention some types of leaders here.


Bartlett’s Classification Bartlett has given three types of leaders.

, 1 Institutional leader. He is the administrator or manager of an organization. The power of such a leader is based on tradition, customs, temple, church, mosque, school or economic system.

, Dominant leader. Such a leader is aggressive and takes tough action.

, Heartwarming leader. Such a leader maintains his control through words and signals, he also uses flattery, suggestion and verbal advice.


Classification of leaders by Kimbal Young. Young mentions seven types of leaders


, 1 political leader. Such a leader is the gift of modern democracy. His work area is usually at the city or state level. He is related to a political party. He is the product of struggle and creates an atmosphere of struggle to grab power. Therefore, he should be a good fighter and should have the ability to build an organization so that he can get success in the elections.


, Democratic leader. , Such leaders are also the gift of democracy, but they are active outside the political party as well. Such leaders are tolerant, adaptable and compromise makers. He firmly believes in law and order.


, 3. Bureaucratic leader. Such leaders are the gift of the government system. These leaders are practical, principled, intelligent and disciplined towards their duties and work. They take any decision only on the basis of law. They insist on maintaining a certain system of work.


, 4. Diplomatic. , Such leaders work according to the rules set by the government. They are representatives of any government or organization. They use dual policy to achieve their goal. He used his words in great measure. Weigh it. It is said that when a diplomat says ‘yes’ he means ‘maybe’, when he says ‘maybe’ he means ‘no’ and when he says no it means that he is not a diplomat.


, 5 reformer. In a democratic society, such leaders are generally found who try to remove many defects found in the prevalent social and political system and bring a new system. They are not fierce revolutionaries, but they are definitely emotional towards change and reform. They do not want to compromise in any way with their principles.


, 6. Oscillators. The provocateur is of radical reformist ideas. He wants the spread of basic principles and gets agitated quickly when opposed to them. He lacks compromise, he is fierce and intolerant by nature. He wants to achieve his goal through violence.


, 7 theorist. Such a leader is impractical. He does not believe in agitation. That logic is more. He does not care whether his principles can be put into practice or not. He presents his principles in an organized and planned form.


tasks of village leader

To act as arbitrator and arbitrator. group members

At the time of conflict, the leader also acts as an arbitrator and mediator and gives his decision after hearing both the parties. It maintains the organization of the group by stopping the process of factionalism in the group.


To be a model The village leader is a role model for the villagers. Everyone in the village considers him superior to them and tries to emulate his conduct. He is a source of inspiration for the villagers.


To become a symbol of the group. The leader is considered the symbol of his group. By observing the conduct and behavior of the leader, the conduct and behavior of his group can be ascertained. Other people make inferences about his followers and group just by looking at the leader.


Group path. Acting as a demonstrator. The village leader is the guide of the villagers. He is with them in times of distress and acts as their teacher and helper in constructive work. When people are unable to decide what they should do to deal with a particular situation, they take refuge in the leader and consider him as a beacon of light and act according to his advice and accept his direction.


Acting as a guardian. The village leader is considered the protector of the whole community. When an outside officer or police is found in the village, he takes the side of the villagers. He gives them protection. Hitchcock mentions this role of the leader in his study of the village of Khalapur. Once a robbery took place at a nearby railway station and the police arrived to arrest the people of Khalapur suspected of having committed the robbery, the Rajput leader clearly Denied that no one in the village was involved in the dacoity. The people of the village also considered this leader kind and fatherly. This leader sacrificed many of his personal interests for the public interest. Or


To act as a reformer. The village leader initiates programs for maximum development and improvement in his village. Hitchcock, in his study of Khalapur village, found that the Rajput leader was trying to wean the people there from drinking alcohol and eating opium and stealing. He implemented the social reform programs run by Arya Samaj and introduced people to the Congress movement. see



Managerial work. The village leader acts as a manager in the village. He divides the work among the people. He asks the government to make arrangements for help to meet the needs of the villagers in times of famine, natural outbreak etc. and puts the demand of the village in front of the government.


Make a plan . The village leader makes plans for village development and public interest. If he is an office-bearer in Gram Panchayat, Co-operative Society and other institutions, he makes many plans for the benefit of the village and receives help from the government for their implementation. He also suggests various ways to carry out his plan. He also sees whether the plan and its goals and means are practical or not. There are two types of plans, short term and long term. Plans for village development and welfare are long term while small ones. For big tasks that need to be completed in a short time, immediate and short-term plans are made.


Determination of policy. The village leader sets the ideals, objectives and policies of the group. policy . In the assessment he is his friend. Can use wisdom or the path of a leader higher than himself. Can get vision. He also takes care of the reaction of his followers towards the policy and also amends the policy if it is rejected by the followers.


Acting as an expert. For the villagers, their leader plays the role of an expert. He overcomes the difficulties in planning and implementing them by being an expert. The leader acts as a ready information and ready solution for the villagers. government work. He acts as an expert for the villagers in getting the work done and in judicial matters.


Group representation. The leader also serves as the representative of his group. For example, the Sarpanch of the village speaks in front of the district level officials and other people in the Panchayat Samiti as a representation of the entire village and acquaints them with the correct condition of the village. At the time of mutual disputes between two villages or when there is a dispute between legal castes and groups in the village itself, the leaders of each caste and group represent their respective groups and place their demands and sides in front of other leaders and officials. Door to the leader group. Acts as a protector. In this form, he transmits the internal information of the group to the outside and outside information to the inside of the group.


Controlling provincial relations. The leaders of the village They look after the internal affairs of their community, party, group and caste. Controls the mutual relations of the members and establishes mutual coordination when tension arises in them. They seek the co-operation of all the members to fulfill the objectives of Sun Ho.


System of rewards and punishments: The leader arranges rewards for those members who work for the benefit of the group. He praises them and tries to give them financial benefits. members who share common interests

do the opposite A criticizes them and ostracizes them from the group. The head of the caste can excommunicate the members who violate the rules of the caste, ask them to give caste feast or fine them.


In addition to the appropriate tasks, the village leader also has to perform many new types of tasks, which are the gift of community development planning and Panchayati Raj, and which are related to the improvement and development of the villages. For example, a village leader has to play a decisive role in the construction of roads, wells, ponds and canals in the village. He acquaints the villagers with new fertilizers, seeds, agricultural machinery and methods of agriculture and for these works he helps the village servants and development officers. Collects donations for community works and accepts the system of shramdaan and new schemes of social development and provides information about them to the villagers. He encourages the villagers to adopt these schemes. Gramira leader also does the work of providing government loans and grants to the people. He acts as a link between the development officers and the villagers and brings the two together. conveys the wishes of others. He represents the village in the government and introduces the villagers to the government information. He receives the assistance received from the Panchayat Samiti, Zilla Parishad and the State Government for the same village. Also opposes such schemes and works which are not in the interest of the village.


Traditional structures of rural leadership;


Age has been a major factor in rural leadership since very early times. Several studies confirm that traditional rural leadership was in the hands of the upper age groups. An older person in the village is not only considered experienced and respected, but it is also considered necessary to know his views in any decision. Common people believe that elders are the custodians of traditions, so the leadership given by them is more useful and meaningful.


economic status; The economic condition of the person has also been of special importance in the determination of rural leadership. Rural life an effect. Life is afflicted. Anyone who is here To meet the economic requirements of the general or time. It is helpful to give them financial assistance on time, and it soon establishes dominance over the common villagers. This is probably the reason why the traditional rural leadership is generally large. Owners and remained confined to the moneylenders only. If a person challenges the leadership of the spiritually rich, he has to face very difficult spiritual problems.


Knowledge of traditions Due to the high number of trained persons in the village, those persons are seen with great respect, who soon become his mother. He is probably familiar with these traditions and is proficient in interpreting them efficiently. Even in the present era, a person with modernity and talent is not considered as important for rural life as a person who behaves in a traditional way. This is the reason that even the people living in the village after receiving new education are not able to assume rural leadership until they mold their life patterns according to the traditions.


contact with the outside world; The life of most of the villagers is still simple, trained and separate from the contact with the outside world. In such a situation, the common villager is dependent on those persons for fulfilling their social, economic and educational needs, who help in meeting the various needs of the villagers with the help of their external contacts. Generally, if a person has any relation with Patwari, police officer of the village or other officials of the city, then that time. He takes over the leadership of the villagers by helping them on time and giving them new information. Quarrels and disputes often go on in the villages regarding land, property and other structures. Due to the lack of proper knowledge of the judicial process by the villagers, the people who help them in the judicial process also easily get the leadership of the village.


, multifaceted personality; Personal characteristics of a person also play an important role in determining rural leadership. A person who participates in the public life of the village and who has more ability to mediate in the time of any dispute, gets more opportunities to become a leader. Similarly, helping the villagers in times of any calamity, making arrangements for wells or ponds in the village, behaving humbly and softly with the villagers and the elder of the village. Respecting elders etc. are such qualities which have been considered essential for traditional rural leadership.


Features of traditional rural leadership;

From very early times, rural leadership has been involved in many such characteristics which are not seen in large groups. It is true that in the present era there have been a lot of changes in the characteristics of rural leadership, but even then the changed form of rural leadership has not moved away from its traditional form. In this situation, it is necessary that we first

Let us discuss the characteristics of rural leadership so that we can understand the current processes of change in their context.


ethnic status; The effect of caste stratification has been most pronounced in the rural structure of India. Traditionally, only influential people from the upper castes in the village had the right to lead. No matter how powerful a person in a low caste a means . No matter how rich or talented he was, it was very difficult to consider him as a leader or headman in the village.


The size and status of the family; The size of the family and the status of the family have been the important factors in the rural structure, according to which a person has been getting a special status in the rural leadership. Increasing the size of the family not only gives its members additional time for leadership, but also increases the opportunities to get the support of more people in each situation. On the other hand, if a person is a member of a respected family, the other people in the village generally accept his authority. It is believed in the village that the members of the prestigious family are more talented, virtuous and well mannered. They are efficient and they can solve their problems easily.



Blood in rural leadership. primacy of relationships. Blood traditionally under rural leadership. The stability of the groups and their dominance is clearly visible. It is true that every village has a headman or panch but the behavior of individuals is most influenced by that leader who is their own clan or kinsman. represents the group. Practically every villager and public All blood groups in the ethnic area have their own . There is a separate leader of his own and his work is to settle the disputes of all the members of his group and to guide them. As a result, on the basis of leadership, the rural life definitely gets divided into many groups, but this divided leadership has proved to be more successful to control the members of the group.


effect of heredity. Rural leadership has always been hereditary in its nature. This means that once a person gets the position of leader or chief in a group or the entire village, it usually continues to be transferred to his next generations. Change in leadership takes place only when a leader either cannot fulfill the aspirations of the villagers or develops such character defects that it is considered harmful to recognize him as a leader.


Division in leadership castes. Traditionally, due to the great influence of the caste panchayat in the villages of India, each caste has its own. There was a separate leader whose task was to control the behavior of all the members of his caste and to punish or reward them according to necessity. From this point of view, the leader of one caste had no importance for other castes, although on many occasions the leaders of different castes used to take decisions related to public life in the village together. Generally, all the chiefs of different castes used to work together under a unanimous leader. The post of the leader of the entire village is also caste. On the basis of the system, a person of a higher caste used to get it.


Predominance of informal control. Informal control is a major feature of traditional rural leadership. To establish control, humor, sarcasm, criticism, disdain and social boycott etc. have been such means which were widely used by the village leader. On some special occasions, the village leader also had the right to give corporal punishment to the villagers, but this work was generally related to the dominance of the landlords. ,


Social nature of leadership. , Villager in Marat for a long time. Life is basically social. It was a cultural life, not an economic one. From this point of view, under the rural leadership, only those works were of special importance, which were related to the customs, rituals, social practices and following the model rules of the society. From this point of view the prestige of the village leader is not to be assessed on the basis of his political power but on the basis of his social . It was done on the basis of cultural proficiency.


Reciprocity in leadership. Brown has made it clear that reciprocity has been a key element in rural leadership in India. This means that the influence of the leader on the followers is measured in the villages. It is not biased, but the thoughts and feelings of the common villagers influence the leader’s behavior to a great extent. This means that the leader and the followers are an integrated unit in the village. In other words, leader and leadership cannot be imagined by excluding followers.


The primacy of prestige in leadership. The element of prestige has been very important in the traditional rural leadership. A person’s morality is a function in determining this reputation. Efficiency, vision and the spirit of service have been given special importance. On the basis of this moral power, the leader compels the common villagers to perform a particular type of behavior. The village leader considers it most important to maintain his reputation and from this point of view he does not want to do any work which is in public light.

be contrary to


All roundness in leadership The form of rural leadership is not as specialized as in the cities, the leader does all the work for his village which is required by the villagers, for example, making various plans, determining policies, making necessary arrangements for marriages and festivals, as an expert. Working in the village, exercising control over the behavior of the members, working as an arbitrator and arbitrator, and representing the entire village on a particular occasion are different functions of the leader. This is the reason why in rural life the leader is not an authority figure but a model of the group. It is clear from the appropriate characteristics of rural leadership in India that the form of leadership here has been largely informal. This informal leadership is not only suited to the rural structure or the solution of rural problems and the different caste . It also contributed constructively to the unity of the groups.



There has been a significant change in the traditional form of rural leadership in India after independence. Religion after independence. Rural development was accepted as the most important requirement for the establishment of an absolute, egalitarian and democratic society. To achieve this goal, not only new development schemes were started in the villages, but the participation of villagers in social, political and official life was also considered essential. With the effect of this whole process, many such patterns started developing under the rural leadership, which was completely lacking in the traditional rural leadership. Only after understanding these emerging patterns of leadership, the nature of this important aspect related to rural power structure can be better understood.



change in leadership; The current rural leadership is characterized by change rather than traditional leadership. Due to the end of the principle of heredity, there is continuous change in the rural leadership according to the aspirations of the villagers. The person who is a leader at one time, after some time the same person can also become a victim of the anger of the villagers. As a result of this trend, now the village leader is not only a person with rights, but he has to be more aware of his duties towards the villagers than his rights. Dr. Singh has written that the traditional autocratic and monopolistic leadership in the villages of India has now become changeable from the point of view that the villagers now have the right to change their leader at any time.


Development of collective leadership; The leadership in the villages is moving from a limited level to a collective form. This means that traditionally where each family , caste and group had separate leaders . Used to be separate and their status was determined genetically, whereas today such a leadership has emerged in which all castes and families come together as one. Connected to a collective leadership. It is true that the collective leadership is also often divided among the upper castes, but the strength of such divisions is now weakening to a great extent.


leadership related to politics; , Due to the entry of various political parties into the rural power structure, the leadership is no longer concerned with social reform as much as with various political activities. In the present situation, most of the villages are now different. centers of different political parties; Chwabamje has become a warrior. Traditionally the rural leadership had no connection with any political ideology. The party in whose favor the influential people of the village used to get the support of the entire village. On the contrary, today every political party conducts its activities keeping in mind the caste structure of the village, as a result of which the same village has become associated with many political parties and different types of leadership. In the context of democratic decentralization, it was suggested in the Mehta Committee report that political parties should take an active part in all the elections from village to district level. The clear form of this suggestion is now becoming clear in rural life. As a result, the social form of rural leadership is now changing into political form.


Earth . Ownership, family and caste influence Traditionally, rural leadership was concentrated only in individuals who owned large lands, belonged to prestigious families, or were members of the upper castes. In the present era, such a paradigm of rural leadership has developed in which these structures have no importance. In the democratic election system, leadership is now being determined on the basis of numerical strength of a group. The result of this is that the representation of backward and scheduled castes in the village leadership is continuously increasing. Panchayat Raj. The participation of these castes in the rural leadership has also increased due to reservation of seats for scheduled castes, tribes and backward classes at every level of the system.


emphasis on executive leadership; Due to the implementation of new development schemes in the villages, such a leadership has emerged, which is bureaucratic or executive by its nature; Can be said to be tentative. For example, as a result of community development programmes, the role of gram sevaks in villages has come into existence.

has become more important. Dr. Dabe has addressed it by the name of ‘new leader’. According to Ashap, a gram sevak is not expected to act like a state official, but is still responsible for village decisions.


Emergence of democratic leadership; Today, a new democratic leadership has developed in the villages, in which the hereditary status of a person, land ownership and caste membership are not of special importance. The village leadership is now concentrated in persons who are elected by ordinary villagers or who have the support of the majority. A special fact is that in this democratic leadership, there is no clear distinction between the power or prestige of the leader and his followers. This means that apart from influencing other people with his behaviour, the village leader is also influenced by the aspirations of the villagers themselves. The nature of leadership in the village is now more secular and religious. is absolute. The power of a leader is not explained on the basis of any religious scripture or traditional beliefs, but on the basis of public opinion. It is based on aspirations and political policies. This is such a change in the rural leadership that has changed the nature of the entire rural power structure.


importance of education ; Due to widespread illiteracy in rural areas till some time ago, education had no importance even in leadership. In the present times, education is considered necessary for leadership. The reason for this is that as a result of expansion in the field of economic, social and political relations in the village, good leadership is expected from that person who is educated. Under the new rules , such instructions have now been given from the head of the state as well that no one should be appointed on official posts in the villages . Only a written person can be sedentary. Is . Prof. Yogendra Singh is of the view that due to the participation of young and educated persons in rural leadership, education is being considered as an essential basis of leadership. Hitchcock has also concluded on the basis of his study that the usefulness of an educated leader in the village has increased much more than before. In another study, Prof. Singh and Parikh found that the only person in the village was the mentor leader; Vachpadapvad can become Sankamat which is limited to some extent. It is clear from all these studies that only educated leaders get the trust of the common villagers and they are considered more useful for rural life.


Specialization in Leadership; One of the major changes brought about in the village leadership is that the entire power of the village is not concentrated in the leader of the village , but each of the specific aspects of life and related to the specific functions are separate . Individuals are being recognized as leaders. In fact, rural life has also become so diverse that different types of leaders are needed to meet different needs. For example, the head of the Gram Sabha, the Panch of the Nyaya Panchayat, the president of the co-operative society, the teacher of the school, the president of the Youth Club and the office bearers of the welfare committees etc. are such leaders in whom the leadership of the entire village is seen in a divided form. Dr. Baijnath Singh has made it clear on the basis of his study that diversity of rural leadership is basically the result of implementation of community development plans.


Increasing representation of youth. An important change in rural leadership is that it is no longer necessary for a person to be of high standing to become a leader. Till some time ago the villagers had the belief that only strong and experienced person can become a leader, but now leadership is slow in most of the rural areas. Slowly it is getting into the hands of the youth. Probably the main reason for this is that after getting training and knowledge of the current innovations related to agriculture, when the youth reaches the village, they easily become the advisor of the village and slowly. Slowly takes over their leadership. The participation of the youth is maximum in the rural development programs run by the government. Similar findings have also been obtained from the study done by Indra Singh in Punjab and the study done by Ranganath in Uttar Pradesh. Both these scholars have expressed the view that the importance of age in the rural leadership of India is rapidly declining. In this regard, Lerner has said that leadership in rural life is still concentrated among the older people. But the study of Lanner has become so out of date that the immediate characteristics cannot be accepted as the characteristics of the present day rural society. young . The class is always more active, liberal in thoughts, changeable in behavior and having a rational attitude towards life. These characteristics are considered more useful for leadership in a changing community.



supremacy of the middle class; , The traditional form of leadership in Indian villages was mainly associated with the class which was either large . Was the owner of large lands or who had immense power of money. After the new democratic system, today such a leadership has emerged in the villages, which mainly interacts with the middle class people belonging to ordinary farmers, animal herders and artisans.

Pisces quickly establishes their conformity, as a result of which they get more opportunities to take leadership and give instructions to do a particular task. ,


Its role is becoming increasingly important in the field of influencing and participating in development plans. Similarly, Development Block Officer, Planning Officer and other workers related to planning have also encouraged the new form of leadership in the villages. from the above discussion

After getting education in the cities, the youth living in the villages are spreading such ideas, under which the traditional form of leadership cannot remain stable. It is true that after using the rights associated with the traditional rural leadership, the traditional headmen of the village are still trying to maintain their influence in the changing conditions, but they could not get much success under these changed conditions. Is .


It is evident that not only new paradigms of leadership have evolved in rural life, but there has also been a change in the circumstances that determine a particular form of leadership. For example, due to the increase in the number of nuclear families in place of joint families, the importance of family in determining leadership has decreased. Earth . Due to the new laws of ownership, traditional zamindars and large landowners. The condition of the owners has deteriorated. Due to the spread of socialist values, the small and marginal farmers of the village have started demanding those rights which could not even be possible till some time ago.


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